e-limbo, e-zine de informacion y analasis de modos de vida actual
08.03.2021 / Sesión no Iniciada 

 _enviar articulo

e-mail emisor
e-mail receptor
Ayúdanos a evitar contactos automáticos
Anti Spam

En estos tiempos de hipercomunicación bastaría la invitación de enviar a un amigo cualquiera de los textos que consideres interesantes algo redundante: demasiada comunicación, demasiados textos y , en general, demasiado de todo.
Es posible que estemos de acuerdo... pero cuando encuentras algo interesante en cualquier sitio, la red, la calle, tu casa, o un lugar escondido y remoto, compartirlo no sólo es un acto (acción, hecho) de amistad o altruismo, también es una manera de ahorrar tiempo a los demás (y de que te lo ahorren a ti (si eres afortunado) a costa del tiempo que tu has podido derrochar (emplear) y el gustazo de mostrar que estuviste ahí (o donde fuera ) un poco antes (el tiempo ya no es más el que era).
Comparte con tus conocidos aquello que encuentras, es evolución.
Garçon! Un Coca-Cola, S'il Vous Plaît
13-01-06 Suggested by: Jack of all Trades 

Europeans hate America these days. So, why are they still buying our stuff?

By Daniel Gross

It is an article of faith among marketing types, Bush administration critics, and even awkward practitioners of public diplomacy, like Karen Hughes, that the unpopularity of U.S. foreign policy in Europe and the Middle East could hurt American economic interests.
If they hate our invasion of Iraq and our president, the reasoning goes, they'll hate Starbucks lattes, Levi's jeans, and Ford sedans. Media and marketing professionals stoked these fears—the former by highlighting every attempted boycott of American products, the latter by undertaking studies to see which companies were most at risk. Last year, I wrote about marketing consultant GMI, which polled European and Canadian consumers and constructed a matrix that showed which brands were deemed to be most American and which brands customers said they'd be likely to avoid.

It was tough to give too much credence to such surveys, because what people say they'll do in a survey and what they actually do in the checkout line are frequently different. What's more, it's difficult to quantify the value of an image, and hence how much a sullied image in the marketplace of public opinion costs a company. But it is easier to tally results in the real marketplace—sales, revenues, and earnings. If U.S. foreign policy is engendering hostility among consumers in Europe, it would surely show up in annual reports.

Two distinguished political scientists, Peter Katzenstein (from whom I took a class in introductory international relations half a lifetime ago) and Robert Keohane, set out to investigate whether American companies were suffering because of American policies. They're editing a book, Anti-Americanism in World Politics, to be published this fall by Cornell University Press. In one chapter, they trot out anecdotal evidence of European hostility to U.S. products. "It is plausible to believe that people who feel hostile toward the United States would be reluctant to purchase products form American firms, especially those products associated strongly with the United States," they write.

To put the hypothesis to the test, Katzenstein and Keohane examined 2000-2004 European sales figures of three major U.S.-based consumer products firms (Coca-Cola, McDonald's, and Nike) and three major European-based consumer products firms competing in similar fields (Cadbury Schweppes, Nestlé, and adidas-Salomon). In the GMI report I wrote about last year, Coca-Cola and McDonald's were squarely nestled in the problem quadrant—identified in the survey as companies that were seen as highly American and that European and Canadian consumers said they'd be likely to avoid. Nike barely avoided the problem quadrant.

In the time period studied, the European sales of all six firms rose. But the sales of the U.S. firms grew more rapidly. From 2002-2004, Coke's sales in Europe rose 37 percent, McDonald's rose 31 percent, and Nike's rose 40 percent. By contrast, adidas-Salomon's Europeans sales rose about 8 percent, Cadbury Schweppes' rose 28 percent, and Nestlé's rose about 2 percent—albeit off a gigantic base. What's more, "all three American firms increased the share of their [overall] revenues deriving from Europe." In other words, as they were demonstrating against U.S. policy and telling market researchers they'd boycott Coca-Cola and McDonald's, Euros were increasingly lacing up their Nikes to walk down to McDonald's, where they'd wash down the junk food with a supersized Diet Coke. The conclusion: "Reports of consumer anti-Americanism damaging sales of U.S.-based firms in Europe are highly exaggerated."

Is there any reason to doubt Katzenstein and Keohane's conclusion? The fact that the dollar was weakening against the Euro during much of the period may have helped boost the American sales. (The figures for U.S. companies are calculated in dollars while the figures for European companies are reported in Euros.) And it could be that weakness in the European economies where anti-American feeling is concentrated—Germany, France, and Italy—was made up for by strength in more friendly countries like Poland. This seems unlikely, since the continent's consuming power is overwhelmingly concentrated in the countries more hostile to the United States.

Plus, there's other evidence to back up Katzenstein and Keohane. For example, it is generally accepted that the public in the Middle East is more hostile to U.S. foreign policy than the public in Europe. And calls have rung out across the Middle East for boycotts of U.S. products like Coca-Cola. But such boycotts have not occurred. As Vito Racanelli pointed out in Barron's over the weekend, data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis "show in the first nine months of 2005, U.S. corporate profits earned from Middle East affiliates rose 33 percent to $3.4 billion."

What gives? One conclusion is that consumers are hypocrites. Or, to view it more charitably, they don't let geopolitical issues stand in the way of positive consuming experiences. (They won't put their money where their mouth is.) There is also a long European tradition of America-bashing mixed with consumption of American goods. What's more, in Europe, the anti-American combination geopolitical/consumer backlash has a long history of futility. In his magisterial book on Europe, Postwar, Tony Judt notes that even after World War II, when the United States was giving France enormous, essential aid, the French railed against the invasion of American consumer products while snapping them up.

Judt notes that Coca-Cola's rapid expansion in the late 1940s "unleashed a public storm" in France. Le Monde was aghast that Coca-Cola had set a target of selling 240 million bottles in the country in 1950 and editorialized, "Coca-Cola is the Danzig of European Culture." Parisians guzzled the sweet stuff anyway.

Plus ça change ..

Publicado originalmente en www.slate.com


Rating: 4 - 1 voto(s).

No existen comentarios.
Comentario / Comment:
  atención: para realizar comentarios tienes que ser usuario registrado.


15-01-12_ "Recapitalizar a los bancos por tener deuda de su país es absurdo"
24-01-11_ Sociedad Estatal de Demoliciones Culturales
18-09-09_ LA comercialización de la cultura
26-10-08_ Solbes: «2009 va a ser peor, no cabe la menor duda»
02-01-09_ The Story of Stuff
05-10-08_ SOROS * entrevista
21-05-08_ Why People Don't Trust Free Markets
02-05-08_ Zimbabue compra por Internet para sortear una inflación del 100.000%
24-03-08_ IDEIA DEKOT * Manual de supervivencia para montártelo por tu cuenta
04-02-08_ ¿'CRACK' 2008?
24-03-08_ Copia privada, ese derecho virtual
24-03-08_ The Pirate's Dilemma: A Review
23-12-07_ Así en la SGAE como en la Iglesia
17-12-07_ Dos asociaciones denuncian que la SGAE financia al poder judicial
16-12-07_ RECIPE: Five Great Lunchbox Favs
25-11-07_ Invitation to the OpenBusiness Community
15-11-07_ Trade-offs of offering content for free
16-11-07_ Climate change * from issue to magnifier
22-10-07_ SGAE: la punta del iceberg de un entramado societario...
02-11-07_ La JUSTICIA y el P2P ( ¡! )
14-09-07_ Executive Compensation: Is This the Beginning of a New Era?
06-07-07_ Collapse: How the U.S. Is Choosing to Fail
26-06-07_ The market function of piracy
24-05-07_ Seven gay wonders of the world
29-08-07_ Designig for Humans Not Users
31-05-07_ Introducing... the starving artist
31-05-07_ Martín Patino liberará su Filmografía.
31-05-07_ People Inside Web 2.0: An Interview with Tim O'Reilly
29-05-07_ Rutas para la innovación abierta: costes, aceleración y creatividad
26-03-07_ WEB 2.0 según TechCrunch
24-03-07_ Arcadi Espada y el Canon
17-03-07_ Ni se le ocurra tatarear a Mozart
15-03-07_ ¿Cómo hacer un blog de economía?
13-03-07_ El brujo de Menlo Park
03-03-07_ Mobile the 7th Mass Media is to internet like TV is to radio
23-02-07_ Hacia el fin del COPYRIGHT
18-02-07_  Shit Help Bad Hot Army Boom Kill!!! 
07-02-07_ Pensamientos sobre la música * Steve Jobs
04-02-07_ MOD Films
03-02-07_ Si no te conectas es por que no quieres...
30-01-07_ Emerging Art Markets
27-01-07_ The "special interests" destroying China's environment
17-01-07_ La SGAE vista desde dentro...
16-01-07_ Interview * Michael Bauwens
10-01-07_ Pero plagiar es otra cosa
04-01-07_ Amenazas a la información

04-01-07_ Los Múltiples retos de la innovación
28-12-06_ Comprando Burgos, La ciudad...
25-12-06_ The inexplicable inexistence of Real Madrid
11-12-06_ Openstudio * Experimento en creatividad, colaboración y capitalismo.
03-12-06_ Open Business re-crea la comunidad
27-11-06_ Cafuné breaking the limits for Open Business models
23-11-06_  Business Model Template Hacking
18-11-06_ O.J. Simpson, News Corp, and Milton Friedman
13-11-06_ Stray Cinema
01-11-06_Del Elitismo de la Web 1.0 a la Burbuja 2.0
01-11-06_How Non-Commercial Licenses make Business
26-10-06_He vuelto de Ikea y mi único deseo es matar (I)
25-10-06_A new idea about Opening Business
19-10-06_Revver - Openbusiness New Sponsor
08-10-06_Is Your Personality the Ticket to Financial Freedom?
30-09-06_The Wrong Gallery * The greatest little gallery on earth
22-09-06_el sin-sentido de las patentes
21-09-06_Open Business Meets Filmaking
16-09-06_IndieKarma * a new way to get paid for blogging
09-09-06_Revolution at our fingertips
08-09-06_La 'wikimanía' se extiende por la Red
01-09-06_Copyright Criminals: This is a Sampling Sport
31-08-06_Man From Google Joins Apple’s Board
18-08-06_Patents for profit: dystopian visions of the new economy
13-08-06_The cluetrain manifesto
10-08-06_Depositos finacieros, vivienda y deducción fiscal
07-08-06_YOU TUBE * me watch
05-08-06_Reunión mundial de piratas informáticos en Las Vegas
04-08-06_Lo que les preocupa a los poderosos
13-03-07_ Ya hay más de 500.000 firmas contra el canon digital
23-07-06_Con la moral por delante
22-07-06_Gateway to Nowhere?
21-07-06_Industria musical y cultura libre: hoy en el CCCB
30-06-06_People Power
15-06-06_El futuro del libro: líquido o en la Red
13-06-06_Casas que están vivas
05-06-06_The fall and rise of Kate Moss
24-05-06_Primera Gran Guerra por el control de la Red
23-05-06_The sunset stalker: Bono
06-06-06_The greedy truth about media consultants
07-06-06_Making meaning from our own stories (Selflore) in the age of discontinuity
22-04-06_La crítica en la era del capitalismo cultural electrónico
05-04-06_La SGAE bate su propio récord de ingresos... y +++
29-03-06_How Copyright Law Changed Hip Hop
03-05-06_China acapara ya el 19% de las reservas internacionales de divisas
25-03-06_Intellectual Property roundup
24-03-06_De Gutenberg a Amazon: cómo convertirse en autor de verdad, sin salir de casa
19-03-06_La mala política energética de Bush
17-03-06_Los estudiantes franceses vuelven a la calle
16-03-06_Brent Hoberman:
06-03-06_Los ‘sukuk’, o cómo invertir sin ofender los mandamientos del profeta
06-03-06_More power to you
18-02-06_I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do
02-03-06_Trabajo afectivo
13-02-06_El parlamento de las cosas
19-03-06_Entrevista: Sabine Breitwieser
07-02-06_El dividendo del arte
03-02-06_Adieu Alan, Bonjour Ben, Welcome Transparency
30-01-06_ Prescribing Drugs a Healthy Future
20-01-06_Vers la décroissance: Écofascisme ou écodémocratie
27-01-06_The New Market Bubble Theory
16-01-06_We need a new drug (system)
13-01-06_Garçon! Un Coca-Cola, S'il Vous Plaît
09-01-06_Weather Has Become Bogeyman, News Staple
07-01-06_La inmigración en España / Una obsesión desbordada
04-01-06_Novel Thinking as a Survival Tactic
27-12-05_África, un desacuerdo navideño con Bono
23-12-05_America's most-hated companies
21-12-05_¡Tu Mismo!
03-12-05_El bajo perfil de España en Estados Unidos
29-09-05_Infinita Avaricia
22-06-05_Por ahí
09-06-05_¡Tu Mismo!



Regístrate y disfruta de utilidades de administración y gestión de los contenidos de e-limbo*
Recibe las novedades en tu correo electronico.
El futuro está escrito en las estrellas... Horóscopo creado por J.G. Ballard y dedicado a todos vosotros.
Aplicaciones y herramientas necesarias para navegar y utilizar los contenidos del limbo electrónico e internet (www).
Artículos de e-limbo* en formato PDF preparados para viajar y aportar información allá donde estés. (y seguir salvando árboles)

_e-limbo * apoya



Mais uma edição do podcast Música Livre para o Archivo Vivo, do Centro Cultural da Espanha/AECID. ...
Ante preguntas de oyentes y amigos, puedo responder ahora que Vía Límite continuará en Radio ...
SORPRESA¡!¡! An unreleased version of Talking Heads' "Psycho Killer" with Arthur Russell on cello
Optimizado: Firefox, Safari, Mozilla, Netscape, Konqueror, Explorer. Resolución óptima: 1024x768
ISSN: 1885-5229    Aviso Legal e-limbo.org*