e-limbo, e-zine de informacion y analasis de modos de vida actual
 
22.08.2017 / Sesión no Iniciada 
_LITERATURA * ENSAYO

 _enviar articulo

e-mail emisor
e-mail receptor
Ayúdanos a evitar contactos automáticos
Anti Spam
Texto
 

En estos tiempos de hipercomunicación bastaría la invitación de enviar a un amigo cualquiera de los textos que consideres interesantes algo redundante: demasiada comunicación, demasiados textos y , en general, demasiado de todo.
Es posible que estemos de acuerdo... pero cuando encuentras algo interesante en cualquier sitio, la red, la calle, tu casa, o un lugar escondido y remoto, compartirlo no sólo es un acto (acción, hecho) de amistad o altruismo, también es una manera de ahorrar tiempo a los demás (y de que te lo ahorren a ti (si eres afortunado) a costa del tiempo que tu has podido derrochar (emplear) y el gustazo de mostrar que estuviste ahí (o donde fuera ) un poco antes (el tiempo ya no es más el que era).
Comparte con tus conocidos aquello que encuentras, es evolución.
Unraveling Identity
10-06-08 sugerido por: Noches de Cocaina 

 

In Toledo, Ohio, I sat down to enjoy the latest Philip K. Dick film adaptation, A Scanner Darkly. The film stars include Keanu Reeves (as Agent Fred/Bob Arctor/Bruce), Woody Harrelson (as Ernie Luckman), Winona Ryder (as Donna Hawthorn), and Robert Downey, Jr. (as Jim Barris). Directed by Richard Linklater, it is animated using the same rotoscope-esque animation technique employed in his earlier and similarly dreamy film, Waking Life (2001). Rather than claim I was stricken with a sudden insight about posthuman cinema by the film, I feel I had been prepared for this event: first, by my current writing on consumerism, lifestyles, and household technologies, and second, by my appreciation for Dick. If I remember correctly, I was halfway through the novel when I learned that the film was being released, and therefore had to finish the book quickly if I planned on seeing the movie after having read the book. A bit like Bob Arctor, the story's protagonist, or maybe like Dick, I was working on this article before I had realized it -- before I had even read the book. And, rather appropriately, I cannot even remember if this sequence of events is entirely accurate.


The purpose of introducing my subject thusly is not to be deliberately confusing, or even to be completely honest. Rather, the purpose is to talk about a sensibility: a way of experiencing reality and its absence. I have been puzzling lately over a genre of film which is hard to situate: films which deal with forgetting and remembering, in which we ride shotgun with protagonists who are just as interested in character development as we are. While the genre itself has not been fully mapped out, potential candidates for inclusion include Abre Los Ojos (1997), Vanilla Sky (2001), Memento (2000), Minority Report (2002), The Bourne Identity (2002), Paycheck (2003), Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004), and, most recently, A Scanner Darkly (2006). I call this genre the "Posthuman Bildungsroman."

The Bildungsroman label is commonly applied to "coming of age" tales or novels of education. For reasons discussed below, this common usage is not entirely accurate, but taken in the larger context of Western Literature such usage makes sense. The traditional questions associated with Western Literature can be summarized in this way: What is a story? An account of change. What is a good story? An account of change that all people can relate to. The assumption is that in order to be sufficiently engaging, change must center on "the human." And in practice, "the human" has overwhelmingly been depicted as an individual. [1] Outside of non-modern folk tales, children's stories, religious texts, and legends, there is little room in this essentialist construct for distributed cognition, nonhuman characters, and environmental agents. Philosophy, literature, and the self grow together/merge under the common characterization of the Bildungsroman. The result is a tradition of "good stories" about the formation of an identity that is rooted in interior personal growth.

In the Posthuman Bildungsroman, the individual is present not as the expression of a coherent self, but as the central problem of the story. Rather than triumph over external obstacles through force of will, the will itself is formed through the effects of outside forces. The story remains a tale of growth and education, but the end of this process is an attempt to stabilize the subject and construct a coherent representation of the self that is consistent with the expectations of its cultural milieu (or, perhaps, the genre).

Before I go any further in explaining this phrase, I must first define the term Bildungsroman more accurately. To understand this term, we can take two approaches: the historical route or the theoretical route. A historical view of the genre situates it in a particular time and place: "first, that the Bildungsroman is a peculiarly German form, and second, that it was the dominant form of the German novel in the nineteenth century." [2] The theoretical approach is more concerned with understanding those works which are preoccupied with the idea of Bildung: "The idea of cultivation (Bildung) through a harmony of aesthetic, moral, rational and scientific education had long been a common property of Enlightenment thought." [3] It is this second, broader sense, which has lapsed into the general usage of the term to describe stories about "growing up."

However, the consensus among scholars of the Bildungsroman is a view that takes both realities into account by recognizing that Bildung, as a concept, must be understood culturally. According to James N. Hardin, we must first understand

Bildung as a developmental process and, second, as a collective name for the cultural and spiritual processes of a specific people or social stratum in a given historical epoch and by extension the achievement of learning about that same body of knowledge and acceptance of the value system it implies. [4]

Jeffrey L. Sammons adds:

the concept of Bildung is intensely bourgeois; it carries with it many assumptions about the autonomy and relative integrity of the self, its potential self-creative energies, its relative range of options within material, social, even psychological determinants. [5]

The Bildung is described as "the early bourgeois, humanistic concept of the shaping of the individual self from its innate potentialities through acculturation and social experience to the threshold of maturity." [6] In other words, it is not just that the Bildungsroman is a German novel from the 1800s or a novel about growing up. Rather, it is a novel in which the protagonist, consistent with middle-class ideas about individuality, comes to be a "person" in the sense of the word as it was understood by the nineteenth century German bourgeoisie.

In response to this genre come the triumvirate of speculative genres: the gothic, the detective, and science fiction. The gothic aims to represent a rotten heritage beneath the polite and hopeful exterior of the bourgeois world. This heritage can take the form of perverted bloodlines, clerical corruption, and/or supernatural remnants from the old world. The detective story aims to represent, within the pride of bourgeois progress, the corrupt heart of the city. This corruption is both hidden and pervasive, but it exists everywhere that modernity exists. Finally, the science fiction story breaks with the promise of the bourgeois world altogether to point to a multitude of possible worlds: utopian and dystopian. Some are unlike ours, and all the better for it. Some are quite like ours, and utterly miserable because of it. The three genres point to the three possible temporal sources of corruption: the past, the present, and the future. Their chief mechanisms are the supernatural, the everyday, and the technological, respectively. All three of these responses represent a dissatisfaction with the model held up in the coming of age novel, as if to proclaim that the past, present, and future of modern society are doomed.

The purpose of this essay is not to add a banal definition to an already embattled literary term. Rather, the purpose is to use the term Bildungsroman as a heuristic device. This leads to a couple of fundamental questions. First, what does the protagonist of the Posthuman Bildungsroman learn? And, second, what does this process of discovery and its conclusion tell us about the current state of Western culture? Certainly it remains informed by bourgeois notions of the individual. The key similarity, I will argue, is that this new genre, which constructs identity from the trappings of consumer culture, is concerned with the same matter as the Bildungsroman: it tells a story of becoming a fully-formed person in relation to society as a whole. However, it differs significantly in the means and ends of this personhood. In an age when capitalism's "creative destruction" has trickled down, even to the deepest recesses of the individual (in body, mind, and spirit), the moral lessons of the Bildungsroman are indistinguishable from the moral critiques of the speculative genres. Good and evil are no longer a meaningful backdrop for the human story. For posthuman subjects, these are stories about learning what it means to be human.

The Genre and Its Origins

If we wish to take a historical view, the Posthuman Bildungsroman can be seen to break off from earlier innovations leading up to and including reality television. [7] While reflexive narrative techniques have a long history in the literary tradition, the 1960 Twilight Zone episode "A World of Difference" represents an early gesture towards the coming "realization" of representation that would appear with the first reality television show. "A World of Difference" tells the story of a businessman whose daily life comes crashing down around him when a director shouts "Cut!". Over a decade later, An American Family debuted on PBS. This twelve-hour documentary follows a real family as it falls apart. [8] In 1979, Albert Brooks' comic film Real Life revisits the concept of An American Family in a fictionalized form. Throughout the 1980s, the taste for "realism" in television spawned a wide range of "real" and dramatized courtroom shows, talk shows, and the still-running television series Cops (which has aired nearly seven hundred episodes). In 1992, MTV introduced viewers to the Real World (now in its eighteenth season), a show which is widely acknowledged as the inspiration for the current popularity of the reality television genre. With the development of websites such as/including YouTube and MySpace, the distinctions between everyday life and entertainment continue to blur.

In an insightful essay on the contradictions inherent in "reality" television, David Banash writes:

Set within the confines of a small house, Big Brother pitted ten houseguests against one another under total surveillance that included twenty-four hour web-cam feeds. While the program sold itself as a glimpse of everyday life, the house is particularly odd in that it lacks almost every kind of device its core audience takes for granted: no phones, televisions, computers, or radios. In essence, what most Americans spend most of their time doing (consuming media) is almost the only thing that Big Brother really forbids. Thus, the authentic moments of emotion which the show sells as its real attraction are, in fact, generated through the most heavy-handed and apparent simulations. The same could be said for similar programs such as Survivor, The Mole, and Temptation Island. The very heavy-handedness of the narratives, their utter dissociation from everyday life, moves them further and further away from the kind of realism with which the documentary has traditionally been associated, and yet the promise is still always the real itself. [9]

The reality genre does not focus on "reality" per se, but an admission that reality is "under construction." As Banash points out, reality shows operate under a compromised definition of reality. If there is an "authentic" thread that connects these media artifacts, it is our own anxieties about reality in the face of media. It is a worldview formed with the expectation of the spectacle.

Driven by its popularity and low production costs (no writers and no professional actors), reality television has metastasized in recent years, bringing the techniques of its format to every conceivable demographic. Many shows seem to pick up where the hit talk shows of the 1980s and '90s (like Oprah, Donahue, Jerry Springer, Montel Williams, etc.) left off. As a result, these shows tend to reflect a self-help formula in which problems are identified, exposed, confronted, and resolved within a single episode. Any titillation or scandal that occurs is contained within a safe, therapeutic context. And though frank discussions of human conflict have great utopian potential, these shows rarely challenge the root causes of interpersonal conflict or address systemic structures that exacerbate them. Instead, they tend to reassure the dominant values, producing solutions consistent with comfortable norms and the neo-liberal worldview.

For the sake of expediency, contemporary reality television shows can be broken down into eight general themes: sociocultural, makeover, survival, professional, romance, fame, reform, and practical joke shows.

Sociocultural shows like Wife Swap, Queer Eye for the Straight Guy (eventually shortened to Queer Eye), Dr. Steve-O and The Simple Life draw their inspiration from areas of social and cultural conflict. In Wife Swap, two families, typically from different social, economic, and cultural backgrounds, exchange wives/mothers for a two week period. The conflict in the series circulates around the collision of cultures, habits, and expectations. The recently cancelled hit Queer Eye features gay cultural experts who are enlisted to bring style and panache to the bland world of the heterosexual male. Dr. Steve-O, on the other hand, bills itself as an "antitdote" to Queer Eye and promises to "de-wussify" American men. [10] The Simple Life focuses on class distinction in the United States. These shows often aim to bridge different worlds and open up entertaining discussions about demographics and particular "types" of people.

Makeover shows such as Extreme Makeover and Pimp my Ride focus on self governance. In Extreme Makeover, men and women subject themselves to radical physical change through diet, makeup, hair styling, fashion, and surgery. The subjects of The Biggest Loser struggle against obesity aided by a "coach." Shows like Trading Spaces and Pimp My Ride focus, respectively, on home improvement and automobile customization. Rather than examining large external conflicts, these shows turn the subjects over to guided self-improvement regimens.

Survival shows like Survivor and Fear Factor advance contestants based on their ability to compete in adverse circumstances. Survivor, the classic example of an elimination-based survival show, combines social and physical endurance with competition and cooperation by allowing contestants to be "voted off the island" by their teammates. Fear Factor focuses on stunts that capitalize on popular phobias like fear of heights, spiders, drowning, etc. As with makeover shows, these shows emphasize overcoming personal limitations through determination.

Professional shows, from American Chopper to The Apprentice, highlight individual success in a trade or a profession. In American Chopper, the celebrity motorcycle mechanics of Orange County Choppers create outlandish custom bikes. In contrast, The Apprentice pits aspiring executives against each other in an ongoing survival competition.

Romance shows including Flavor of Love and The Bachelor focus on heterosexual relationships starring conventionally attractive, young women. In The Bachelor, twenty-five women compete for the hand of one bachelor (for the sake of gender parity, the show was followed by The Bachelorette). The Flavor of Love (and the spin-off Rock of Love) features former celebrities (Flavor Flav and Brett Michaels, respectively) who select a mate from a field of female contestants. These shows put a competitive spin on romance, reinforcing the idea that relationships are held together through submission to the desires and expectations of another.

Fame-based shows circulate around the cultivation of a celebrity (American Idol) or on life as a celebrity (Surreal Life). Like professional shows, America's Next Top Model, American Idol, and Making the Band glorify exceptional individuals, but they contain the added dimension of celebrity. Meanwhile, shows like Gene Simmons Family Jewels shine a light into the daily lives of famous people.

On the other end of the spectrum, reform shows like Judge Judy and Supernanny are primarily concerned with punishment and shame. Judge Judy is a courtroom show which stars a feisty, outspoken "judge" who cuts through grievances by telling it like it is to the guilty and innocent alike. Supernanny serves up discipline both for unruly children and inept parents. These shows, along with the long-lived Cops, create a spectacle around deviance and highlight the desire for aggressive solutions to social problems.

Finally, practical joke shows like Girls Behaving Badly, Bam's Unholy Union, and Punk'd create absurd situations that disrupt the expected norms of daily reality. Punk'd exposes celebrities to ridicule and shows them in unflattering situations. Bam's Unholy Union (a spinoff of Jackass and Viva la Bam, with a nod to the Newlyweds) exposes the social order and plays with the rules of polite society by focusing on the absurd domestic life of the anarchic Bam Margera. The stars of Girls Behaving Badly pull pranks on unsuspecting subjects, usually in a consumer-oriented public space, often exposing gender norms to ridicule. While the other types of reality shows borrow freely from the practical joke shows for comic relief, these shows are the most difficult category because of their challenge to the status quo.

It is important to note that there are also many shows that do not rest easily in any of the categories outlined above. Shows such as MythBusters (a science show about testing urban legends) and Sweet 16 (a showcase of debutante excess) are among them. In fact, none of the shows operate exclusively in any single category. For example, Queer Eye for the Straight Guy and Flavor of Love could be viewed as makeovers, while shows like Girls Behaving Badly and Survivor both drift into the sociocultural categories. The Simple Life is also a fame-based show and, at times, a dating show. And The Apprentice and Extreme Makeover certainly comment on discipline and punishment.

That which unites these shows has little to do with their content and more to do with their production and the subjects they produce. Underneath the popular discourses on demographics, self-improvement, personal achievement, professional life, dating, celebrity worship, discipline, and other consumer practices, is a more basic underlying principle. In order to take hours of raw, meandering footage and cultivate them into a coherent human drama, the production values take center stage. In effect, we witness characters that are developed by the editor. Narrative arcs are pieced together and aided by voiceovers, soundtrack choices, and visual effects to create drama, inspire emotions, and provide closure. The individuals who provide the "reality" at the center of the enterprise are, in fact, people living in front of rolling cameras, but their subjectivities are entirely constructed by context, editing, and consumption. Characters emerge from the stream of real time, written after the fact by an elaborate sociocultural apparatus.

Thus reality television plays a crucial role for contemporary audiences. In the same way that the traditional Bildungsroman served to educate citizens in the emerging norms and values of the middle class, the reality genre provides instruction in postmodern ontologies. Through popular media, we engage in the process of "governmentality." In "Technologies of the Self," Michel Foucault defines this concept as "[the] contact between the technologies of domination of others and those of the self." [11] Nikolas Rose's Governing the Soul provides a more detailed discussion:

The citizen is to enact his or her democratic obligations as a form of consumption through new techniques such as focus groups and attitude research. This kind of 'government through freedom' multiplies the points at which the citizen has to play his or her part in the games that govern him. [12]

In other words, governmentality is the means by which subjects discipline themselves in order to conform more fully to systems of power. Reality television, rather than offering a naturalistic representation of the world as it meets our senses, educates viewers in an "idealized" version of identity construction vis-à-vis consumer culture. The genre aims to represent reality not as it is, but as it will be, provided we follow the roadmap of becoming that is held up in its text.

By the late 1990s, films like Peter Weir's The Truman Show (1998) and Ron Howard's EdTV (1999) emerged to criticize the place of reality television in contemporary culture. In The Truman Show, Truman Burbank (Jim Carey) lives his entire life on an enormous soundstage called Sea Haven. Televised twenty-four hours a day, Truman's life is the ultimate reality show, that is, until his blissful existence is shattered by the realization that his life is an elaborate media contrivance. The film plays on both the fascination with reality television and the unreality of the gated community, suggesting that the two species are coexistent. In EdTV, Ed Pekurny (Matthew McConoughey) rises to superstardom as the subject of his own reality show. Both films give voice to a wider popular skepticism about the merits of the reality genre.

More interesting are the films which invert the reality television conceit (by playing on the supposed unscripted character of the real), and use the idea of the pre-scripted as real. Though not explicitly about reality television, these stories draw upon the same zeitgeist: surveillance, editing, and image figure prominently in the development of character. While drama is traditionally rooted in change, these dramas are about the subject's conformity to what is. In the traditional detective genre, the protagonist must sift through competing narratives to uncover the truth. In these ontoteleological films, the protagonist must sift through the multitude of subjective states to realize the self. Chris Nolan's Memento, Steven Spielberg's Minority Report, and John Woo's Paycheck all feature protagonists who must discover their identities through the course of the narrative (although each director approaches this in different ways and with different levels of cinematic success).

Memento's Leonard (Guy Pierce) cannot remember anything that has happened to him since his brain injury. For him, every day is a clean slate, a mystery. In order to discover how his wife was murdered and how he became who he is, he leaves himself mementos: clues in the form of polaroids, tattoos, notes, and instructions. Through these physical markers he constructs an autobiography and thus attempts to learn who he is. In the end, we discover that it is Leonard who has deliberately distorted his autobiography and created a false and troubling solution to the crime. Not unlike the editor of a reality television show, Leonard engages in a process of elimination that reduces the many facts of his existence into a single narrative thread with which he can live. In his discussion of Memento, Nate Burgos notes the fundamental similarity between cinema and cognition: "Memory is the camera, the film, the sound, the projector, and screen." [13] For Burgos, the film succeeds in laying bare the nature of human subjectivity: "[E]veryone is an auteur." We construct ourselves in real time as we shoot, edit and project our memories forward. However, to truly understand the nature of this auteurship, it is important/necessary to contextualize the film both within its genre, and alongside the closely related reality genre. The film is not simply a statement about truth. It is the statement of a particular truth that exists within the individual engaged in the discovery qua production of the posthuman self.

In Spielberg's Minority Report, John Anderton (Tom Cruise) is a "pre-crime" detective who prevents murders and convicts would-be murderers based on tips provided by "precogs" (technologically augmented clairvoyants). When the precogs reveal that Anderton himself is to become a murderer, the detective sets out to discover why. In "Time and the Fragmented Subject in Minority Report," Martin Hall explains Anderton's negotiation of the dissonance between who he considers himself to be and the way in which he is represented:

We see Anderton dismantling and restructuring images, searching for whatever possible versions of this representation are available to him, other than the one that represents him as a murderer. In the Lacanian sense, he is not merely trying to describe his trajectory, he is staging its movement: he believes that the play of images represented will resolve themselves into the absolute knowledge that the future anterior tense this fragmentation has placed him within does not allow for. [14]

Through the course of the film, we learn along with Anderton how he comes to complete the image. But in a clever twist, the "murder" that Anderton is to commit is revealed to be a suicide. Although Minority Report works as a critique of the "surveillant assemblage" that seeks to pre-empt future disasters, [15] it shares with Memento the sense that, ultimately, identity construction emerges from the will of the individual in dialectic with the constellation of things which holds that identity in place.

John Woo's 2003 Paycheck (based, like Minority Report and A Scanner Darkly, on a work by Philip K. Dick, whose novels also inspired the films Bladerunner [1982] and Total Recall [1990]) is the story of a reverse engineer who takes a job so secret that his memory will be deleted upon its completion. When he discovers that his assignment has the potential to destroy the world, he leaves a trail of clues that will help him reverse engineer his deleted memory and allow him to undo the product of his labor. While the protagonist of the film discovers himself in his objects, Paycheck shares with Minority Report the hope that the individual can come to an honest self-representation in spite of the conspiratorial nature of the coming future society.

The ambiguous nature of the Posthuman Bildungsroman comes to its clearest representation in A Scanner Darkly. Agent Fred is a narcotics officer living in deep cover amongst addicts under the name Bob Arctor. His cover is so deep that Agent Fred must always wear a disguise to conceal his identity, even from his colleagues. As part of his investigation, he must record the everyday activities of his household. To keep his cover intact, he must use the drug Substance D and file surveillance reports on himself along with everyone else. In order to succeed, he must convince both his friends and his employers that he is Bob Arctor. His addiction to Substance D only complicates things further, a substance which has a botanical name of Mors ontologica, or "ontological death." The primary side effect of Substance D dependency is a growing disconnect between the hemispheres of his brain and a resulting split in his subjectivity. Uncertain about his actions as Arctor, he must submit to the authority of police surveillance. Eventually, he loses his job over his covert activities and enters rehabilitation. In the New-Path rehabilitation program, he takes the name Bruce, and must undergo extensive behavior modification in order to destroy his former self and be rebuilt into a functional member of society - which, in the end, is revealed as part of a police plan to find the source of Substance D: New-Path's farm labor camps. By then, of course, Agent Fred/Bob Arctor has been fully replaced by Bruce, who can barely function and who would be unrecognizable to any of his former selves.

The common thread running through these films is the idea that a self that can be encoded, erased, and re-written. In spite of the specific characteristics of each film's protagonist, they share a common identity in that they are all cobbled together from the images, objects, and information that surround them. If an inner self or authentic identity exists at all, it is in the will to self-actualization vis-à-vis the material world. These characters personalize and give the blessing of "agency" to the surface of this process. Unlike a true Bildungsroman, culture in these films does not offer the means by which one can discover a deeper, more authentic self. In the case of Memento, the external datastream confounds and distorts the protagonist to the extent that his only hope of a self is to embrace a lie. In Minority Report, the protagonist manages to buck the system, even as the image itself remains true but misinterpreted. In Paycheck, the protagonist's possessions are ultimately the only markers of truth. All three protagonists strive frantically for self-discovery, but must rely on the world of commodities, media, and representation in absence of a centered self. To return to the roots of the genre, the protagonists resemble reality television stars in that their reality is produced before their very eyes. The Fred/Arctor/Bruce personality in A Scanner Darkly seems to have totally abandoned the possibility that a "self" exists at all.

For a better understanding of the genre, it is useful to consider Scott Bukatman's concept "terminal identity." Terminal identity is spawned by "terminal culture" (which plays with definitions of "terminal" as destination, interface, and demise). Developing a discussion initiated in Haraway's "Cyborg Manifesto," Bukatman claims that the ambiguous postmodern self of contemporary popular culture is characterized by a "transcendence which is also always a surrender." [16] To paraphase, terminal identity is the subject position which can embrace the slick surfaces of the virtual without looking for something deeper. The terminal subject accepts the image at face value.

If we accept Bukatman's theory of terminal identity, then we might ask what sort of "coming of age" tale these films invoke. [17] Traditionally, we have had novels where "being" is uncovered: the first type being the traditional Bildungsroman, and the second type being those which exist in opposition to the genre -- incest genealogies of the gothic, the cracking of the mystery in the detective novel, or the radical revisions of science fiction -- all of which revel in the secrets of modern society.

The postmodern "coming of age" is radically different not just in its construction of identity through an assemblage of surfaces and images, but also in its ambiguous relationship with its purposes. The reality genre appears as a representation of what really is, but it also implies its own satire by exposing the flaws of "real people" and the flaws of "representations of real people." Hence the nearly instantaneous arrival of films like EdTV and The Truman Show. On the one hand, these shows reveal a scorn for mediation and a scorn for the bourgeois culture that they aim to police. On the other hand, they are pure forms of mediation and pure expressions of bourgeois values. The self becomes only the agent of its own destruction, saying "yes" to/by affirming reformatting and the installation of new operating systems.

Unlike the traditional Bildungsroman, whose countertype was the triumvirate of speculative genres aforementioned, the countertype to reality television is more essential in its critique. The two genres of reality television and its satire do not battle over the questions of Good and Evil; rather, they battle over the very existence of the self. In this way they resemble the gothic, the science fiction, and the detective story. But within these texts, there is fundamentally little difference between tales of disassembly and reassembly: they are equivalent processes of posthuman becoming.

The twist presented in these stories is not a discovery that pertains to some other; instead,it comes in the realization of who the protagonist has been all along. Where things get interesting is in the protagonists' utter mystery/uncertainty and befuddlement as to who they might be. Rather than wondering what is concealed beneath the surface, the characters themselves are pieced together from external cues, arriving at a subjective space that is not determined by an interior state, but by an assemblage of surrounding signs. Hence, Leonard's erroneous story is written on his skin. Anderton's story is edited into a coherent scheme which fits social knowledge about crime and deviance. Jenning's story is tucked into an assemblage of objects. Finally, Arctor's story is molded to fit the narrative of substance abuse, therapy, and law. If there is an inherent, internal knowledge of the essential self, these protagonists do not seem to know it/are unaware of it.

Unlike the traditional Bildungsroman, these tales do little to affirm the value of bourgeois society as an instrument of personal growth. Rather, they challenge the possibility of individual personal growth in favor of the outward signs of a coherent subjectivity and, in the process, call into question the validity of an atomistic self. This approach to externals affirms the conventional wisdom of what we know about postmodernism as an aesthetic that is preoccupied by surfaces and which eschews depth and interiority. It also confirms the assumptions of posthumanism, which suggest that the "person" is not simply the expression of an eternal, immutable state, but rather, is the point where discursive threads converge. Personal identity is an interpretation of culturally constructed notions of subjectivity.

Most importantly, the Posthuman Bildungsroman might simply be a refinement of narrative itself. As Bernard Stiegler points out in "The Time of Cinema": "Memory is originarily forgetting because it is necessarily a reduction of what has occurred to the fact of being past, and therefore, it is less than the present." [18] If the function of memory is to edit a dense informational realm of perception into a coherent stream of significance, memory is functional insofar as we can forget. Film attempts to accomplish this experience in advance of perception, editing, focusing, and streamlining information in the service of narrative while "forgetting" the static and noise that would confound its coherence. A Scanner Darkly takes this streamlining process a step further, replacing the "live" actors with animations. Viewed in light of Foucault's notion of "governmentality," these stories dramatize subjects who arrange themselves around power. Teetering at the edge of the void, scrambling to find meaning, the subject submits to the disciplinary system in which he or she makes sense.

The protagonists of these "ontoteleological" genres, then, are only doing what all characters have been told to do. They have been scripted such that they come to develop personalities free from histories, free from an interiority or an essence, but also remarkably free of their own autonomy. This conceit -- that the narrative is self-consciously unreal -- has been with us at least since the time of Shakespeare (and perhaps throughout human history), but what differs is that now it has become a stable and compelling subject of narrative itself. It has long been understood that postmodernity is tied closely to the experiences and lessons of mass mediated representations, but in films such as A Scanner Darkly, we discover that this solipsistic realm of experience has congealed into the terra firma of postmodern truth.


Notes


---------------

[1] This trend makes Mary Shelley's Frankenstein all the more interesting: A being formed outside of the human biological process, assembled from multiple bodies, striving to form himself in accordance with the perceived norms and values of his society.

[2] Jeffrey L. Sammons, "The Bildungsroman for Nonspecialists: An Attempt at a Clarification," in James N. Hardin, ed., Reflection and Action: Essays on the Bildungsroman, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1991, 26-45, p. 28.

[3] Fritz Martini, "Bildungsroman -- Term and Theory," in James N. Hardin, ed., Reflection and Action: Essays on the Bildungsroman, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1991, 1-25, p. 5.

[4] James N Hardin, "An Introduction," in James N. Hardin, ed., Reflection and Action: Essays on the Bildungsroman, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1991, ix-xxvii, pp. xi-xii.

[5] Sammons, p. 42.

[6] Ibid., p. 41.

[7] This section is a divergent interpretation of texts presented in my book, A Small World: Smart Houses and the Dream of the Perfect Day, Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

[8] David Banash, "From an American Family to the Jennicam Realism and the Promise of TV," Bad Subjects 57 (October 2001): n.pag. 16 March 2004 http://eserver.org/bs/57/Banash.html. Accessed April 3, 2008.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Christopher Rocchio, "USA to debut new 'Dr. Steve-O' reality makeover series on October 1," Reality television World, 21 June 2007, http://www.realitytvworld.com/news/usa-debut-new-dr-steve-o-reality-makeover-series-on-october-1-5396.php. Accessed April 3, 2008.

[11] Michel Foucault, "Technologies of the Self," Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988, 16-49, p. 19.

[12] Nikolas Rose, Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self, New York: Free Association Books, 1999, p. xxiii.

[13] Nate Burgos, "Memento, Memory, and Montage," CTheory, 27 November 2001, www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=321. Accessed April 3, 2008.

[14] Martin Hall, "Time and the Fragmented Subject in Minority Report," Rhizomes 8 (Spring 2004), http://www.rhizomes.net/issue8/hall.htm, par. 8. Accessed April 3, 2008.

[15] For a more complete discussion of the "surveillant assemblage" and Minority Report, see Samuel Nunn, "Tell Us What's Going to Happen," CTheory, 12 September 2006, www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=518. Accessed April 3, 2008.

[16] Scott Bukatman, Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Post-Modern Science Fiction. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993, p. 329.

[17] Ultimately, I think these tales are about the expression of a larger, incorporated subjectivity which dwarfs the individual. They tell the story of the emerging character of a system that increasingly interprets subjectivity through the external assessment of personality via pattern recognition, data-mining, and demographics research and presumes to meet desires and needs through an ever-evolving matrix of lifestyle norms.

[18] Bernard Stiegler, "The Time of Cinema: On the 'New World' and 'Cultural Exception,'" Tekhnema 4 (Spring 1998): 66-112, p. 84.


Bibliography


---------------

Banash, David. "From an American Family to the Jennicam Realism and the Promise of TV." Bad Subjects 57 (October 2001): n.pag. 16 March 2004. http://eserver.org/bs/57/Banash.html. Accessed April 3, 2008.

Bladerunner. Dir. Ridley Scott. Perf. Harrison Ford, Daryl Hannah and Rutger Hauer. Warner Brothers, 1982.

Bukatman, Scott. Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Post-Modern Science Fiction. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993.

Burgos, Nate. "Memento, Memory, and Montage." CTheory. 27 November 2001. www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=321. Accessed April 3, 2008.

Dick, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? New York: New American Library, 1969.

---. A Scanner Darkly. New York: Vintage Books, 1991.

Doane, Mary Ann. The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency, The Archive. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.

EdTV. Dir. Ron Howard. Perf. Woody Harrelson and Matthew McConaughey. Universal, 1999.

Featherstone, Mike. Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage, 1991.

Foucault, Michel. "Technologies of the Self." Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. L. H. Martin et al., eds. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988. 16-49.

Gray, Chris Hables. Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Hall, Martin. "Time and the Fragmented Subject in Minority Report." Rhizomes 8 (Spring 2004). http://www.rhizomes.net/issue8/hall.htm. Accessed April 3, 2008.

Haraway, Donna J. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century." Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991. 149-81.

Hardin, James N., editor. Reflection and Action: Essays on the Bildungsroman. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.

Hardin, James N. "An Introduction" Ed. Hardin. ix-xxvii.

Hardt, Michael, and Antionio Negri. Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature and Informatics. Chicago: University of Press, 1999.

Heckman, Davin. A Small World: Smart Houses and the Dream of the Perfect Day. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

Martini, Fritz. "Bildungsroman -- Term and Theory." Trans. Claire Baldwin and James M. Hardin. Ed. Hardin. 1-25.

Memento. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Guy Pearce and Carrie-Anne Moss. New Market Films, 2000.

Minority Report. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Tom Cruise and Colin Farrell. 20th Century Fox, 2002.

Nunn, Samuel. "Tell Us What's Going to Happen." CTheory. 12 September 2006. www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=518. Accessed April 3, 2008.

Paycheck. Dir. John Woo. Perf. Ben Affleck and Uma Thurman. Dreamworks, 2003.

Real Life. Dir. Albert Brooks. Perf. Brooks. Paramount, 1979.

Rocchio, Christopher. "USA to debut new 'Dr. Steve-O' reality makeover series on October 1." Reality television World. 21 June 2007. 22 June 2007. http://www.realitytvworld.com/news/ usa-debut-new-dr-steve-o-reality-makeover-series-on-october-1-5396.php. Accessed April 3, 2008.

Rose, Nikolas. Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. New York: Free Association Books, 1999.

Sammons, Jeffrey L. "The Bildungsroman for Nonspecialists: An Attempt at a Clarification." Ed. Hardin. 26-45.

Schumpeter, Joseph. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper, 1975.

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. J. Paul Hunter, ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996.

Stiegler, Bernard. "The Time of Cinema: On the 'New World' and 'Cultural Exception.'" Tekhnema 4 (Spring 1998): 66-112.


------------------------

Davin Heckman is an Assistant Professor of English at Siena Heights University in Adrian, Michigan. He is the author of A Small World: Smart Houses and the Dream of the Perfect Day (Duke University Press, 2008).





This article is coming from CTHEORY




Pendiente de Licencia / ... del autor o autores. 
Pendiente de Licencia / ... del autor o autores.
   
 

Rating: 1 - 1 voto(s).

   
_COMENTARIOS
No existen comentarios.
Comentario / Comment:
  atención: para realizar comentarios tienes que ser usuario registrado.
        

_HistÓrico_Literatura * Ensayo

01-05-16_ PLATH (straight... no chaser)
24-04-16_ La carta de Lord Chandos [ revisited ]
29-08-15_ APROPIACIONISMO HOY, MULTIPLICACIÓN DEL ACCIDENTE
04-04-12_ El libro en tiempos del capitalismo electrónico
04-04-12_ DOS CUENTOS BREVES (Para Agustín Fernández Mallo)
13-10-12_ Una lectura de Serán ceniza*
13-10-12_ PÓSTUMOS
11-11-11_ BESTIARIO Y BIBLIOTECA
06-07-11_EN LOS BORDES DE LO POLÍTICO
06-07-11_ Subversión más allá de la sospecha* II
30-05-11_ Qué le hace ZEMOS98 a nuestro cerebro
18-04-11_ Baader-Meinhof
15-09-11_ Consideraciones acerca del duelo, una lectura de Barthes
24-04-11_ CREATIVIDAD DIGITAL...
01-01-11_ BASIC WARDROBE: AITA
31-10-10_ El artefacto precioso
23-10-10_ Fantasmas semióticos: referencialidad, apropiación, sci-fi, historicismo, etc
19-10-10_ RIZOMA
30-10-10_ GPS5/ Splice, o la crítica de la razón científica
31-08-10_ TODAS LAS VIDAS, MI VIDA / SYNECDOQUE NEW YORK
31-08-10_ UNTITLEDSTRIP (ELEGÍAS)
02-09-10_ SUCESORES DE VOK
21-09-10_ La imagen-(contra)tiempo
02-06-10_ LOS USOS DE LA FICCIÓN
21-09-10_ LA PRIMERA PÁGINA
28-07-10_ LA MATERIA DE LOS SIGNOS.
25-07-10_ OPUS 4: OSTINATO UNENDLICHE (CODA)
01-06-10_ TAN VACÍO COMO CUANDO TODAVÍA NO ERA...
03-01-10_ En grand central station
06-01-10_ [Noli me legere, e-cK y cultura_RAM : 3 Libros + en PDF de autor ]
18-03-10_ ¿QUÉ HACER DE LA PREGUNTA "¿QUÉ HACER?"?
28-02-10_ Una imagen es una imagen es una imagen (tres escenarios)
29-11-09_ HACKEAR / JAQUEAR
07-02-10_ El último Joyce
07-11-09_ THE ROSEBERY LETTERS
18-10-09_ The Charles Bukowski Tapes
31-10-09_ RETÓRICAS DE LA RESISTENCIA
17-11-09_ La muerte del autor, de Roland Barthes * Simón Marchán Fiz
06-09-09_ Tres faux amis, desenmascarados mediante el análisis de conceptos
09-10-09_ Ernst Jünger * Tiempo mensurable y tiempo del destino
22-09-09_ Thomas Pynchon * Inherent Vice
03-09-09_ Muestra tus heridas
18-09-09_ Telepatía colectiva 2.0: pequeña teoría de las multitudes interconectadas (2007)
28-06-09_ Comer con los dedos
17-09-09_ La crítica de Postpoesía que estaba esperando
02-09-09_ DESAMBIGUACIÓN
05-07-09_ La palabra más terrible de nuestro tiempo es ERE
05-07-09_ Manuscrito hallado junto a una mano * Julio Cortazar
17-09-09_ Gilles Lipovetsky y Jean Serroy: La pantalla global. Cultura mediática y cine en la era hipermoderna
04-05-09_ El método de la igualdad * Jacques Rancière
17-09-09_ Ayn Rand [el manantial]
17-09-09_ Zizek aprieta fuerte el lápiz
17-09-09_ ARQUITECTURAL PARALLAX
17-09-09_ _ _ _
06-09-09_ EL NARRADOR IDÓNEO
13-09-09_ LAS AURAS FRÍAS
12-07-09_ Una vida absolutamente maravillosa
28-04-09_ On the idea of communism
12-07-09_ Envasado al vacío [noir and white]
03-05-09_ POR TU SEGURIDAD
06-09-09_ En busca del catálogo perdido
09-02-09_ SIN
03-01-09_ Beckett emocionante
09-02-09_ Peter Lamborn Wilson in NYC
29-01-09_ The Uses of the World "JEW"
03-12-08_ ¿Qué es lo contemporáneo? 
25-01-09_ Heidegger y el "Asereje
18-09-09_ Acto de Novedades [1964]
10-05-09_ Figures of subjective destiny: on Samuel Beckett
18-09-09_ Tan íntimo y efímero
02-01-09_ The girl who wanted to be God
26-10-08_ ctrol + c, ctrol + v
22-02-09_ Tejido cicatrizal
18-09-09_ Little Brother by Cory Doctorow
26-10-08_ Yo también odio Barcelona
28-09-08_ En el mundo interior del capital * Peter Sloterdijk
11-10-08_ No existe lo híbrido, sólo la ambivalencia * Jacques Rancière
18-09-09_ El fantasma del fantasma * Aproximaciones al régimen escópico de Las Meninas
11-10-08_ Remembering David Foster Wallace (R.I.P)
18-09-08_ Milagros de la vida * J.G. Ballard
08-09-08_ Rudyard Kipling * El rickshaw fantasma
07-08-08_ Descansa en paz * Leopoldo Alas
02-09-08_ Diseccionando a JG Ballard
01-08-08_ Las artes espaciales * Entrevista a Jacques Derrida - Peter Brunette y David Wills
02-09-08_ Ser es ser mediático
02-09-08_ Teoria del significado
22-07-08_ ¿Dios ha MUERTO?
30-06-08_ Tales of natural beauty * Edgar Allan Poe
22-07-08_ Passages from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake * Mary Ellen Bute (1965-67)
22-07-08_ El ejercicio crítico de la filosofía * entrevista a Barbara Cassin _ Gustavo Santiago
26-06-08_ Otra noche
18-09-08_ Baudrillard * La violencia de la imagen
25-05-08_ MiCrOsOfT suelta el SCANNER
06-06-08_ CAFÉ PEREC * Enrique Vila-Matas
10-06-08_ Unraveling Identity
11-05-08_ Hacerse sentir en el presente
13-05-08_ La responsabilidad del artista * Jean Clair
08-06-08_ La obra de arte y el fin de la era de lo singular
31-03-08_ Del Amor y la Muerte
01-04-08_ PROFESORES
13-04-08_ Los domingos de Baudelaire
24-03-08_ Samuel Beckett * Stirring still
22-03-08_ Llámalo NOCILLA
13-03-08_ Sombras y fantasmas aterradores, irónicos y malévolos
24-03-08_ Ecology: a New Opium for the Masses
02-04-08_ Encarnar la crítica
31-03-08_ Todo es y se ha hecho posible
02-03-08_ Dos días en Viena
16-03-08_ mirad, mirad, malditos (en souhaitant beaucoup de papillons)
19-02-08_ Download Steal This Book Today Alpha… Today!
24-03-08_ CERRADURA y LLAVE
24-03-08_ J. G. Ballard, de Shanghai al neo-barbarismo
24-03-08_ La educación del des-artista
24-03-08_ El descrédito de lo visible
24-03-08_ La inconsistencia de los modelos propietarios
24-03-08_ Censorship today
31-12-07_ ¿Estamos preparados para KINDLE?
25-12-07_ Arthur C. Clarke o la razón soñadora
16-12-07_ Alrededor del sueño africano
09-12-07_ 10 types of publication
11-12-07_ Chuck Palhniuk * Entrevista
31-10-07_ EBOOK: Overclocked by Cory Doctorow
02-11-07_ Amsterdam MON AMOUR !
14-10-07_ Y después del Pop
02-11-07_ Trouble with the Real: Lacan as a viewer of Alien*
25-09-07_ La paradoja del escritor sin cara
10-10-07_ La era postmedia
25-09-07_UBU. Selección Otoño 2007
19-09-07_ Cultura_RAM
15-06-08_ Corporeidad Kafkiana
26-08-07_ SPOOK COUNTRY, el manifiesto del pasado reciente
26-06-08_ El teatro de la resistencia electrónica
05-01-08_ McLuhan's Wake
31-07-07_ Alberto Vázquez-Figueroa: "Primero que lean gratis, luego ya comprarán"
23-07-07_ Writing's Crisis v.1.0
23-07-07_ J.G. Ballard - Shanghai Jim
23-06-07_ This one shooting skyward
13-06-07_ Noctem Aeternus
06-06-07_ J.G. Ballard: Shanghai Jim
26-06-07_ Un paraiso extraño
10-05-07_ Persuasión * Jane Austen
10-05-07_ Orgullo y Prejuicio * Jane Austen
23-05-07_ Everything is weird, Epifanio said.
06-05-07_ Hatred of Capitalism: A Semiotext(e) Reader
25-04-07_ El buen soldado * Ford Madox Ford
09-04-07_ Germán y Dorotea *  Goethe
09-04-07_ Esperando a Orlando
05-04-07_ Llamadas telefónicas * Roberto Bolaño
30-03-07_ Hatred of Capitalism: A Semiotext(e) Reader
28-03-07_ Los inconsolables de la catorce
27-03-07_ Los papeles de Aspern * Henry James
29-03-07_ Ortodoxia * G. K. Chesterton
24-03-07_ Kawabata * Lo bello y lo triste
20-03-07_ Jane Austen * Persuasión
10-03-07_ M. Eliade * Visiones de Oriente
30-05-07_ Gate of Heaven
31-05-07_ Noam Chomsky and the Media
06-03-07_ The atrocity exhibition * GJ Ballard covert art
06-03-07_ Secrecy and responsibility * Questions for Derrida and Dostoevsky
04-03-07_ Negro como el carbón
23-02-07_ Jacques Derrida * Leer lo Ilegible
07-03-07_  The End Again 
18-02-07_ Entrevista * Peter Sloterdijk 
19-02-07_ El manifiesto Neoyorkino y las gentes que lo abrazaron
11-02-07_ Siegfried Kracauer * Estética sin Territorio
04-02-07_ UbuWeb Featured Resources February 2007 Selected by Charles Bernstein
31-01-07_ The Waste Land by T.S. Eliot
03-05-07_ La historia del buen viejo y la bella muchacha
03-05-07_ La mujer zurda * Peter Handke
23-12-06_ El ayudante * Robert Walser
22-12-06_ Hypertext 3.0: Critical Theory and NewMedia in an Era of Globalization
20-12-06_ La mejor serie de TV
19-12-06_ Andre Gide * Los sotanos del Vaticano
18-12-06_ Robert Penn Warren * Todos los hombres del Rey
13-12-06_ E.M. Forster * Regreso a Howard's End
12-12-06_ Thomas Bernhard * El sotano
10-12-06_ Atrapada en el Limbo
28-12-06_ Impostor
15-12-06_ La herencia de Dorothy Parker
05-12-06_ Books... that's all
02-12-06_  E-BOOK: Top Ten Titles at Project Gutenberg
28-11-06_ El imitador de voces * Thomas Bernhard
07-12-06_ Notas sobre Imitación y Contagio en la Novela (a partir de Bakhtin)
10-12-06_ Del Limbo * Giorgio Agamben
21-11-06_ Pincha Pynchon?
13-07-07_ Qué sabía Descartes, de verdad? Dos biografías del filósofo
10-11-06_El Crimen Invisible * Catherine Crowe
06-11-06_ Un visionario entre charlatanes
01-11-06_ E-BOOK: Books to Read Before You Die, Part 3
29-10-06_electronic literature collection - vol. 1
26-10-06_ E-BOOK: Books to Read Before You Die, Part 2
22-10-06_ E-BOOK: Books to Read Before You Die, Part 1
09-10-06_Paz y surf
08-10-06_Zonas Autónomas Permanentes
20-09-06_Goethe * Las afinidades electivas
18-09-06_ AUDIO BOOK * Longer Poems from Librivox
14-09-06_Félix Duque * ¿Hacia la paz perpetua o hacia el terrorismo perpetuo?
02-09-06_Only Revolutions, Danielewski on the road
01-09-06_International Man of Mystery
31-08-06_Rudiger Safranski * El mal
07-09-06_Andre Dubus y los cánones
03-05-08_ Ernst Jünger * Tiempo mensurable y tiempo del destino
14-01-08_ Ernst Jünger * La Emboscadura
30-08-06_Sloterdijk en la era de la levitación
28-08-06_Escribid, malditos, escribid
20-08-06_AUDIO BOOK: Genesis (in Hebrew)
15-08-06_Thomas Bernhard... y yo (BobPop)
15-08-06_El Gran Hermano «BEAT»
13-08-06_E-BOOK: Five of Shakespeare's best
11-08-06_Cory Doctorow * Down and out in the magic kingdom
11-08-06_Stranger than science fiction
10-08-06_AUDIO BOOK: Metamorphosis by Kafka
07-08-06_Dave Eggers... y yo (BopPop)
06-08-06_Enséñame a filmar
01-08-06_Pensar el presente
30-07-06_El cuarto purgatorio * Carlo Frabetti
30-07-06_El hijo de Gutemberg * Borja Delclaux
27-07-06_On the Road' again -- this time unedited
25-07-06_Thomas Pynchon — A Journey into the mind of [P.]
26-07-06_Strange sexual practices take place
22-07-06_Talk Talk * T.C. Boyle
22-07-06_“Cuentos completos - I” de Philip K. Dick
01-08-06_The Second Coming of Philip K. Dick
25-07-06_¿Le sirvo un poco más de té, señor Nabokov?
04-07-06_Man In Black
01-07-06_Las preguntas de Heidegger
29-06-06_Más de 300.000 obras gratis
26-06-06_Charles-Louis Philippe * Bubu de Montparnasse
18-06-06_Juan Carlos Castillón * Las políticas del secreto
18-06-06_Vernon Lee * La voz maligna
12-06-06_Bloomsday 06
12-06-06_Animales todos
17-06-06_Hagakure
07-06-06_De Sun Tzu a la Xbox: juegos de guerra
03-06-06_James Mangan * Una aventura extraordinaria en las sombras
12-06-06_Harold Bloom * Jesús y Yahvé, los nombres divinos
01-06-06_Conferencia de Felipe Martínez Marzoa: El pensamiento de Heidegger
30-05-06_Stefan Zweig * La impaciencia del corazón
22-05-06_Joris-Karl Huysmans * Cornelis Bega
19-05-06_Metáforas que nos piensan
06-06-06_Synesthesia and Intersenses: Intermedia
06-06-06_The Gospel according to Philip K. Dick
14-05-06_El Dios de las pesadillas * Paula Fox
14-05-06_La pelirroja * Fialho de Almeida
07-05-06_Chuck Klosterman * Pégate un tiro para sobrevivir
07-06-06_Slavoj Zizek * Lacrimae rerum
04-05-06_Eugenio Trías * Prefacio a Goethe
04-05-06_Ray Bradbury * Calidoscopio
04-08-06_Un día perfecto para el pez plátano
04-05-06_Seymour Glass
04-05-06_Julio Camba * La ciudad automática
07-06-06_Dictator Style
04-05-06_Rudiger Safranski * Schiller, o la invención del idealismo alemán
28-04-06_Michel Houellebecq * H. P. Lovecraft. Contra el mundo, contra la vida
04-05-06_El corazón de las tinieblas * Síntesis selvática
22-04-06_G. Flaubert * Diccionario de los lugares comunes
21-04-06_¡¡MADRID LEE!! (y otras pildoras de su interes)
21-04-06_HOWL fifty years later
21-04-06_Cees Nooteboom * Perdido el paraíso
01-05-06_Las Tres Vanguardias
19-04-06_El libro de Jack. Una biografía oral de Jack Kerouac
23-04-06_Hegel - Chesterton: German Idealism and Christianity
10-04-06_FRENCH THEORY * Posteridades intelectuales
11-04-06_La literatura y el mal
09-04-06_Corman McCarthy
09-04-06_Gabriele d’Annunzio * De cómo la marquesa de Pietracamela donó sus bellas manos a la princesa de Scúrcula
09-04-06_Saved Kashua * Árabes danzantes
09-04-06_Jim Mccue * No Author Served Better
09-04-06_Gary Adelman * Naming Beckett’s Unnamable
09-04-06_Thomas Browne * Sobre errores vulgares
08-04-06_Encuentros con Beckett
09-04-06_Michiko Tsushima * The Space of Vacillation
08-04-06_Trotsky * Memoria de un revolucionario permanente
08-04-06_Rafael Doctor * Masticar los tallos...
03-04-06_Edie... Sedgwick
02-04-06_El corazón de las tinieblas * Joseph Conrad
01-04-06_Parientes pobres del diablo * Cristina Fernández Cubas
01-04-06_China S.A. * Ted Fishman
01-04-06_Subnormal * Sergi Puertas
21-04-06_Homúnculos y Demonios
30-03-06_Creación e Inteligencia Colectiva * El libro.
28-03-06_Young Adult Fiction
25-03-06_Nada es sagrado, todo se puede decir * Raoul Vaneigem
25-03-06_Tras la verdad literaria * Herman Melville
22-03-06_Lovercraft según Houllebecq
19-03-06_Cees Nooteboom | Perdido el paraíso
16-03-06_La idea de Europa | George Steiner
16-03-06_Contra el fanatismo | Amos Oz
16-03-06_La sociedad invisible | Daniel Innerarity
13-03-06_Ashbery. Autorretrato en espejo convexo
23-07-07_ Autor, autor
25-03-06_Pushkin, Mozart y Salieri
04-03-06_Across the Universe | 'Counting Heads'
13-03-07_El Hombre variable
19-03-06_Entrevista: Bret Easton Ellis / Lunar Park
26-02-06_Bloy, profeta en el desierto / Historias impertinentes
26-02-06_Tratado de ateología
13-02-06_Contra la escritura por encargo / Hipotermia
07-02-06_El mono científico
07-02-06_El Relojero
19-03-06_La obra maestra desconocida / Honoré de Balzac
29-01-06_Un caso de Identidad / Arthur conan Doyle
29-01-06_Una escritora entre Oriente y Occidente / Entrevista: Amélie Nothomb
29-01-06_Viaje al fondo de la habitación / Tibor Fischer
23-01-06_Puntualmente / Günter Grass
18-01-06_Two Million Feet of Vinyl
16-01-06_No tan libres como parece
09-01-06_The Coming Meltdown
07-01-06_Palabra
07-01-06_Nada volvió a ser lo mismo
06-01-06_A Debut Novel Serves Up an Irish Stew in London
27-12-05_Jazz and Death: Medical Profiles of Jazz Greats
06-01-06_John Berger: /«Una vida sin deseos no merece la pena»
03-12-05_La gran obra de Murasaki Shikibu
03-10-05_« Tríptic hebreu » / (fragmento)
10-06-05_Anthony Bourdain » Confesiones de un chef
10-06-05_Samuel Beckett » Deseos del hombre y Carta Alemana
06-06-05_Ali Smith » Supersonic 70s

_ORBITAL_Literatura * Ensayo

_Servicios

test
Regístrate y disfruta de utilidades de administración y gestión de los contenidos de e-limbo*
Recibe las novedades en tu correo electronico.
El futuro está escrito en las estrellas... Horóscopo creado por J.G. Ballard y dedicado a todos vosotros.
Aplicaciones y herramientas necesarias para navegar y utilizar los contenidos del limbo electrónico e internet (www).
Artículos de e-limbo* en formato PDF preparados para viajar y aportar información allá donde estés. (y seguir salvando árboles)

_e-limbo * apoya

test

_Multimedia

_AUDIO >
Mais uma edição do podcast Música Livre para o Archivo Vivo, do Centro Cultural da Espanha/AECID. ...
_PODCAST >
Ante preguntas de oyentes y amigos, puedo responder ahora que Vía Límite continuará en Radio ...
_VIDEO >
SORPRESA¡!¡! An unreleased version of Talking Heads' "Psycho Killer" with Arthur Russell on cello
Optimizado: Firefox, Safari, Mozilla, Netscape, Konqueror, Explorer. Resolución óptima: 1024x768
ISSN: 1885-5229    Aviso Legal e-limbo.org*