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En estos tiempos de hipercomunicación bastaría la invitación de enviar a un amigo cualquiera de los textos que consideres interesantes algo redundante: demasiada comunicación, demasiados textos y , en general, demasiado de todo.
Es posible que estemos de acuerdo... pero cuando encuentras algo interesante en cualquier sitio, la red, la calle, tu casa, o un lugar escondido y remoto, compartirlo no sólo es un acto (acción, hecho) de amistad o altruismo, también es una manera de ahorrar tiempo a los demás (y de que te lo ahorren a ti (si eres afortunado) a costa del tiempo que tu has podido derrochar (emplear) y el gustazo de mostrar que estuviste ahí (o donde fuera ) un poco antes (el tiempo ya no es más el que era).
Comparte con tus conocidos aquello que encuentras, es evolución.
The Aura of the Digital
24-11-07 Suggested by: Don Load 

 

By dividing the interpretation of an art work into several distinct "levels" it becomes possible to recognize a fundamental distinction between digital and non-digital art works, as well as realize the underlying ideology is based upon the illusion of infinite resources; as such it replicates the underlying ideology of capitalism itself -- that there is an infinite amount of wealth that can be extracted from a finite resource.

The Aura of the Digital


Michael Betancourt


Michael Betancourt. Spook: The Ghost of Slavery Past, 2003.


Preface

It is an illusion that emerges in fantasies that digital technology ends scarcity by aspiring to the condition of information. The digital presents the illusion of a self-productive domain, infinite, capable of creating value without expenditure, unlike the reality of limited resources, time, expense, etc. that otherwise govern all forms of value and production.

Digital forms also exhibit what could be called the "aura of information" -- the separation of the meaning present in a work from the physical representation of that work. As digital works with the "aura of information" imply a transformation of objects to information, understanding the specific structure of digital art makes the form of the "digital aura" much more explicit. This clarity allows a consideration of the differences between the scarcity of material production in physical real-world fabrication versus the scarcity of capital in digital reproduction: the necessity for control over intellectual property in the virtuality of digital reproduction. Because capital is a finite resource itself subject to scarcity, yet also caught in the capitalist paradox of escalating value -- in the dual forms of interest and profit on capital expenditures -- there is the constant demand to create more commodity value in order to extract more wealth from society in order to maintain the equilibrium of the system.

Understanding this "aura of information" requires an acknowledgement about the nature of the digital object: it is composed from both the physical media that transmit, store, and present the digital work to an audience, and the digital work itself is actually composed of both a machine-generated and a human-readable work created by the computer from a digital file (itself actually stored in some type of physical media). This "digital object" is the actual form of the digital work -- a series of binary signals recorded by a machine and requiring a machine to render this unseen "code" readable by humans. The "digital object" becomes the human readable forms of image, movie, text, sound, etc. only through the conventionalized actions of a machine that interprets the binary signals of the digital object and following the interpretative paradigm built-in to that machine renders this binary code into human readable and superficially distinct forms. All digital objects have this singular underlying form -- binary code -- a fact that makes the digital object fundamentally different from any type of physical object precisely because it lacks the unique characteristic of form that defines the differences between paintings, drawings, books, sounds, or any other physical object or phenomenon. Unlike physical objects, digital objects are all basically the same, whatever their apparent form once they are interpreted by a machine.


I. Physicality and Knowledge

Walter Benjamin's essay, "The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction" initiates the critical discussion of the idea that artworks have "aura," and proposes that this "aura" is destroyed by the process of mechanical reproduction. His notion of "aura" quickly expands to include more than just art -- anything that is reproducible is folded into this conception. While this description of Benjamin's article is highly reductive, it captures his essential thesis that inherently suggest a historical loss brought about by technological change. Following Benjamin's argument it is logical to suppose that art would be without "aura" once mechanical reproduction gives way to digital reproduction. As economist Hans Abbing has noted:

Walter Benjamin predicted that the technical reproduction of art would lead to a breaking of art's spell ('Entzauberung'). Art became less obscure, more accessible and thus less magical because of technical reproduction. ... Benjamin's prediction is not difficult to grasp. Technical (re)production enables a massive production of artworks at low prices. It would be very strange indeed if this didn't reduce the exclusive and glamorous allure of art products. ... But thus far, this hasn't happened; [the composer] Bach and his oeuvre maintain their aura. In general, if one observes the high, if not augmented status and worship of art since Benjamin's essay first appeared, his prediction was either wrong or it is going to take longer before his predictions are borne out. [1]

Abbing's observations about Benjamin's thesis that technological reproduction and mass availability result in diminished "aura" suggest that instead of diminishing the "aura" of art, reproduction helps to extend the aura of the works reproduced instead of destroying that aura. This inverted interpretation of "aura" produced by the readily accessible and available art work shifts the emphasis in Benjamin's article from the traditional "cult" value of art objects to what he terms their commercial "exchange" value. This emphasis on what Benjamin supposes to be the traditional role of art works in religious practices appears in his concept of aura as the physicality of the art object, what he refers to as "authenticity":

The authenticity of a thing is the essence of all that is transmissible from its beginning, ranging from its substantive duration to its testimony to the history it has experienced. [2]

As Abbing's proposition implies, Benjamin's idea of "authenticity" only becomes a meaningful value once there are reproductions of an art work, similar in appearance, but not identical to their source. Thus, the more widely promoted an art work through reproduction, it is possible to suppose that its "aura" would logically then increase as well. What Abbing suggests is that "aura" is not as Benjamin proposed it, but is instead a function of the reproductive process itself. This shift in conception of Benjamin's "aura" suggests that art objects have a dual character. Their "aura" is both the physical traces of the particular history that an object has experienced, and the relationship of that object to the tradition that produced it. These are two distinct values: one resides in the physical object, the other lies in the spectator's knowledge (and past experience) of the object's relationship to other, similar objects. If the first value is a "historical testimony," the second value can be called a "symbolic relationship." Even though the relationship to tradition is an independent value, separate from the physical properties forming the "historical testimony," it cannot be reduced to a set of physically present characteristics. Separating these two values results in a new conception of "aura" independent of Benjamin's initial proposition that is specifically applicable to digital technology: the idea of "aura" results from the role the work plays for its audience sociologically (how they employ the work in their society.) This conception, as related to the audience's access to that art work, makes conflicts over "intellectual property" an inevitable consequence of the emergence of digital technology.

Mechanically or manually (re)produced objects always have an implicit limit on their availability (thus their accessibility); digital objects do not have a limit of this type -- in principle, an infinite number of any digital work could be produced without a change or loss, or even deviation between any of the works. This distinction between all physical objects and digital objects reveals a fundamental similarity between the original art work and its mechanical reproductions; such similarity does not conflate the older relationships of copy with original: instead it reveals the basic difference between the digital and the physical. Every digital reproduction is identical to every other; digital objects are stored as a form of information, rather than limited as physical objects inherently are; thus the digital state can be understood as a form of instrumental language -- instructions for executing the "retrieval" that is a specific digital (art) work.

With physical objects each object is in fact unique, even when it is an identical example of a given type: while two sheets of white paper may be apparently identical in every way, each sheet is a unique example, physically discrete and independent of all others. Digital reproductions are all the same, rather than being unique examples of a given type (as with sheets of paper), each is an identical execution of uniform, constant instructions, a "copy." Information theory describes works of this kind as exhibiting zero information-theoretic entropy: because the execution of the instrumental data of digital objects (the electronic file stored by a computer) is an entirely predictable process, within the framework of a given digital system, no information is required to produce a digital work from a digital object (electronic file). [3] Digital reproduction is therefore fundamentally different from any kind of reproduction previous to it, and the digital objects subject to this type of reproduction can be seen to constitute a new class of object.

Digital (art) works retain their initial form over time without degradation because there is no physical object that is subject to the decay of time. They can be edited, compiled, combined, and distributed without any change in any subsequent reproduction; "copies" can then be reproduced further, infinitely, without ever being subject to the necessary loss inherent to physical media. One "copy" is not only equivalent in content, it is identical to its source. The concept of a digital "original" disappears because all versions are all identical "originals," or are all identical "copies."

Contemporary language lacks the terms needed to describe the relationship between distinct instances of an identical digital object: "copy" assumes the traditional mode of originals and replicas; "clone" introduces a biological analogy that nevertheless suggests some anterior original source that (at least) potentially exists as the source. Because the data comprising the digital work itself remains constant, digital objects are indistinguishable; the distinction between any two iterations of a singular digital work is not an issue of content or form, because the digitized information remains constant; it is an issue of location and physical presentation -- where a specific version is located on (or in) the physical media that carries its imprint and/or displays it in a human-readable form.


II. Physical vs. Digital Objects

The distinction between physical objects and digital objects is absolute. These distinctions are related to a duality between symbolic meaning and physicality that begins with the earliest forms of mass reproduction: minting currency. The stamping of emblems on coins renders each token valuable by dual means: through its material (precious metals), and symbolically identified as authentic (that its value is real) by the markings emblazoned on its surfaces (its symbolic content). Authenticity is a conclusion based upon a second order of interpretation, derived from a decision about the symbolic content of an object. The digital object, lacking a physical component, exists as symbolic content that becomes a physically accessible form only when presented through a technological intermediary, (for example, a video or computer monitor) or transformed into a physical object (such as a paper print-out).

The separate valences of material and symbol can be understood as existing at different levels of interpretation: the physical provides the first level, with all the conclusions about the object's age, etc. forming a first order; the symbolic content, including its connection to traditions, similarity or difference with other objects, the interpreter's relationship to the particular object, etc. all form a second order of interpretation. While the second, symbolic order does require the first order (some type of physical presence) for its presentation, the interpreted content exists as an excess to the first order. It is information provided and created by the interpreter using previous experience with interpreting the form and character of the first order that produces the second order.

The dualism of "aura" in physical objects appears as a function of both the material object and its symbolic content. That the dualism of "aura" is connected to the invention of exchange value (currency) is not accidental. Exchange value depends on human agency in social and political ways to achieve its meaning and maintain its value. It is precisely in the establishment of value through recourse to a particular scheme of many different objects governed by human agency that "value" emerges at all. Awareness of the symbolic relationship between one object and another is an interpreted result of human agency, and does not inhere in the object itself. Aura for digital works retains this dualism while shedding the literal constraint of specific physicality. The encounter with a digital object remains a material engagement, but one where the material is separate from the digital work, serving as a presentation of the work -- i.e. what is seen and heard watching a videoclip on a computer.

The separation of the specific presentation of a digital work from our conception of that work literally inscribes the Modernist desire to isolate the art work from the context that produces it into our consciousness and interpretation of the digital work: instead of requiring the sanitized, clean white gallery space to eliminate external context from the interpretations of art, with digital works this eliding of the specifics of location, presentation, context, etc. happens in the mind of the spectator. This effect derives from the "aura of information" that digital works aspire towards.

Because the material aspects of digital works are ephemeral, lasting no longer than the phenomenological encounter with the presentation of the digital object, (typically on a screen of some type), the "aura of information" suggests that the digital itself transcends physical form. This illusion defines the "aura of information." Because digital works emerge from a second-order interpretation they belong to the same category of objects as music encoded for playback by a machine, as with the player-piano scroll. Digital objects are not readily human-readable, and only become sensible as works when processed by a machine. Like the music encoded on the player-piano scroll, the digital object is separate from its physical embodiment, often produced in ways and with technologies (like language) that are independent of digital forms, but are readily reproducible without loss and totally dependent on the specific technologies of their performance or presentation (as with digital works).

As digital objects do not degrade with time; they will not disappear over time. The limit for a digital work is not based on its physical demise, but rather on its availability within contemporary technology. Older digital works are only "lost" because the technological support for accessing them vanishes: the digital work, theoretically, endures and can be retrieved at some future time. Digital reproduction then becomes not only an inherent characteristic of digital objects, it is also their means to effective immortality. The digital reproduction of files from older technology to new technology enables the continuation (perpetual maintenance) of digital works regardless of what technology they may have begun within; early computer programs, such as 8-bit arcade games that originally existed as ROM chips in, for example, the Atari 2600 Home Entertainment System game cartridges are still accessible because contemporary technology is able to emulate the discarded, obsolete systems, thus enabling these otherwise inaccessible digital works to be read with equipment vastly more powerful and otherwise incompatible with the older digital files. In the case of the Atari 2600 computer game system there is a large, although limited, number of functional Atari Home Entertainment Systems, and when the last system irreparably breaks down, access to the original versions of the files on those ROM cartridges by their original hardware systems will be lost. Such a loss constitutes the historical testimony of this technology and the digital works accessible to it. However, the historical testimony these systems have is completely separate from the files contained by these ROMs, and the survival of the data on them is of a different nature than the survival of the original, physical system itself. (This reading is a result of newer systems emulating earlier digital systems' functioning.)

The ability to separate the digital file from the hardware dramatizes the aura of digital objects: the digital work as immortal, transient, adaptable to any new presentation technology that comes along. It also connects the aura of digital objects to the aura of information since information is a function of interpretation and so can theoretically be transferred from one representational system to another, as when ancient, "dead" languages such as ancient Greek or Egyptian hieroglyphs are translated into contemporary ones such as English. Theoretically the content of the earlier language remains constant; with digital objects this theoretical aspect of human language and meaning becomes actual fact because of the distinction between the machine language of binary code that is prescriptive and human language that is descriptive and denotative. Because the binary machine language is a set of commands, the transfer and conservation of information held within that language is not subject to the semiotic "drift" of meaning that affects all human language. Thus the contents of even "dead" digital systems can be recovered, assuring the immortality of any digital object.

Yet, the immortality of digital files also leads to an accumulation of works whose management and accessibility inevitably will begin to become an issue in itself, beyond simply the question of being able to access antiquated files constructed and used with hardware that is obsolete and irreplaceable.

Once the immortality of digital works is understood to mean these works will accumulate and be immanently present indefinitely into the future, a Malthusian problem emerges. As more and more materials accumulate in digital form they will become increasingly difficult to organize, access and use. The "aura of information" implies that this continual databasing of information is a positive value in itself, separating information from the ability to use it or determine its value. The "aura of information" gains its apparent value from pre-digital societies where access to and possession of information was a positive value because the volume of information even potentially available was limited both physically to specific objects, and by the ability to reproduce that information. In such a society, stockpiled information has value in itself because the amount of information remains limited. For digital technologies, the creation, storage and distribution of information are not limited in the ways they are for traditional societies. Because digital information aspires to immortality, is infinitely reproducible, and claims the "aura of information" -- the accumulation and management problematics of digital files necessarily emerges as an inevitable outcome of the development of digital technology.


III. Historical Testimony

All mechanical reproductions are objects in themselves; as such, they carry their own "historical testimony," and are subject to the effects of time and decay as are any other objects. This is true for the mechanical reproduction at all levels of its existence; even the photographic negative is subject to decay and loss, just as the metal plate used in printing gradually wears away as it is used to make reproductions. The mechanical reproduction can therefore be regarded as having the same potential to authenticity (via historical testimony) as any other physical work of art.

In contrast to the mechanical reproduction, the digital reproduction is a multi-valent object. The physical representation of a digital object, as on a computer screen for example, does not subject that file to the wearing away that physical objects suffer; nor does the copying, sending or storage of these digital objects necessarily damage them. The digital transfer of files produces perfect, identical copies not subject to the historical testimony of physical objects. In effect, the digital object -- the information contained in/as the digital file is independent of historical testimony. However, the medium that stores the digital file is subject to "historical testimony." This container is distinct from its contents, and should be understood as separate from them.

The types of "historical testimony" that do impact digital files can thus be divided into three types: (1) those that impact the container, whether it is the disk, CD, ROM, or other storage medium, (2) those that effect the digital file in itself as distinct from the storage medium, and (3) the accessibility of the file using contemporary technology (the issue of obsolescent software, hardware, and the files produced with that older technology). A broken CD may render the data it contains inaccessible, but it does not actually destroy the data. A damaged or corrupted computer file is a result of errors made by the system storing and displaying the file, and are not examples of historical testimony, but are more akin to misprints and errors made with the machinery of mechanical reproduction.

The accessibility of a digital object produced with obsolescent technology leaves no trace on the digital object itself; it is the ability to read that file's content that becomes attenuated with time, not the file itself. Its contents remain constant even when we can no longer access those contents. This situation is akin to our ability to read ancient, "dead" human languages written in hieroglyphics or cuneiform: the contents of the text are independent of their storage medium or the format (language) in which they are written.

These failures do not constitute a historical testimony for digital objects; instead, they demonstrate the digital work's nature as second order interpretations presented for viewing. This explains their lack of physical presence and the uncomfortable relationship between the digital "template" or original, digital file and the physical versions produced from it as print outs, displays on monitors, etc.. The conflict surrounding intellectual property rights is most concerned with access to the art "object" itself, since in the digital realm the potential to reproduce and distribute does not necessarily include the right to read (access) the work -- this is why every digital rights management (DRM) proposal limits and controls access to the (digital) art work: the right to read. [4]


IV. The Independence of Digital Presentation

First order interpretations of historical art works such as the Sistine Chapel proceed based on the fact that it remains the Sistine Chapel in all circumstances; however, this assumption reveals its attenuated character with mechanical reproduction, and announces itself clearly with digital works (if it is not rendered completely invalid by the myriad variability between different displays of the same work through the variability of projectors, monitors, different user parameters on various computers, etc.) to such an extent that it becomes less appropriate to think about digital works in terms of the specifics of a particular display than it is to think about them independent of the particular display where they may appear.

Consider the issue of color, for example. Different computer monitors display color differently, depending on the age of the monitor, how long it has been in use, the particular construction of the pixels in its screen, the specific settings it has at the moment of display, etc., etc. Stores selling monitors will set up displays showing their available models because these differences impact the appearance of digital works displayed on them. The question of color becomes even more variable when consideration of presentation expands beyond desktop monitors to include other kinds of display such as projection, TV broadcast, or even video on cell phones. Each expansion of potential display increases the variation in how a digital file appears, rendering the question of which version is the authentic version problematic since the file being displayed can remain constant.

The aura of information demands that spectators ignore the presentation (video monitor, projector, print-out, etc.) in considering the "context" of the work -- conclusions related to what would be first order interpretations for non-digital works: for example, where the painting is from, how it is lit, how old it is -- all these questions generally vanish when confronting a digital projection. Age, materials, etc. do not devolve from the physical materials of a digital work's presentation, but from considerations relating to its symbolic content. To the extent that a digital work has a historical testimony, it is a result of historicizing the style and form of the work (second order interpretations.) That a digital work is shown on a flat-screen in presentation, a cathode ray-tube in another, and as projection on another occasion does not effect our considerations of that digital work. While the presentations may change, the digital work is considered to remain the same whatever means are used in its presentation. This dismissal of the variability of digital works' presentations suggests that the digital work exists and is understood as being independent of its various presentations. The same dismissal of the physically stored digital file mirrors the dismissals of the specifics of presentations; both are effects of the aura of information creating the belief that digital objects are divorced from physicality.

The independence of digital works from their physical presentation is connected to the contingency of both the right to read a digital file and technological basis of digital (re)production. Where both manual and mechanical reproduction always preserve the physical character of the object, leaving it subject to its particular historical testimony; digital works do not. Any type of printed matter retains its form unless physically assaulted -- burying a book in peat moss may result in the book decomposing, with the resultant loss of the book as such; a digital work cannot be thus assaulted, but neither can it be accessed away from a technological support. Digital files only appear through the variation the above consideration of the issue of color implies.

Recognizing the lack of historical testimony of digital works creates a framework shifting digital objects away from the particular, physical object-oriented attributes of their presentation towards being a non-object oriented art. The uniqueness of digital works cannot thus be a result of there being "only one," nor can the uniqueness of digital objects be a result of a solitary (individual) character because all "copies" are identical in every way. In effect, for digital works (as with mechanically (re)produced works before them), there is no first order object, in the way there is a Sistine Chapel.

The impact of the digital work's particular form of "uniqueness" on intellectual property reveals itself as the issue of access to the work: the right to read, rather than to own a copy. Possession and access are separated from one another. With first order objects, such as the Sistine Chapel, possession also confers the right of access: having possession guarantees access to the work; with digital works, possession becomes attenuated -- it is possible to "own" files on a computer, but not have the ability to access those files' contents. The model that intellectual property thus adopts is much closer to the idea of a bank where only authorized persons may do business and everyone else is turned away unless they, too, invest their money in the bank. In all cases, what the customers have access to, what actions they are allowed, and most significantly how much it costs to perform those acts is determined by the bank. What these "customers" may do is strictly limited by the particulars of their specific investment in the bank.


V. The Materiality of Digital Works

Mechanical reproduction is always limited by the physical materials, both in the form of the (re)productive technology (printing press, photographic negative, etc.) and the materials that form the reproduction itself. This basis imposes duration on the object; until the digital work is (re)produced physically, it lies outside this constraint, even though the digital file is always physically stored, the digital work that file produces remains a separate entity, although nevertheless inherently sourced to this digital file. And because the aura of information leads to the interpretative ignorance of the physical appearance of the work when it is presented to its audience, falling "outside" means that it is not subject to the effects of time degrading it via duration either when reproduced as an object, or in its native, digital form. Thus, the "authenticity" of the digital work lies in it being independent of the effects caused by the passage of time, its use (digital works do not "wear out" the way physical objects will), or via its replication and distribution in a digital form: unlike physical objects, digital works do not exist with physical constraint on the works themselves, only on the ability to store (and transmit) them, as with the limited ability to store files on a hard drive.

The absent physical limit means, in principle, that digital works can be regarded as immortal -- making the lengthening of statutory ownership (copyrights, patents, etc.) a necessary and inevitable corollary to the conflict over intellectual property: the maintenance of the property as such demands that it last as long as the work in question. To do otherwise is to acknowledge the contingency of this right to read on the economics of object-based production and consumption that predate the emergence of the digital work.

Implicit in the "right to read" is the ideology of the "cutting edge" that renders digital technologies obsolete. With this technological shift from current to antique is a constraint on the particular deployments of the technology -- what has variously been called cut-up/mash-up/remix/collage/montage/database-driven work -- based around a reassembly of existing materials into "novel" forms. That this aesthetic form has recurred in almost identical approach and form with each new technology (Dziga Vertov experimented with wax recordings to make "remixes" in the 1920s [5]) suggests these approaches are banal rather than disruptive, (except in the economic language currently attached to "intellectual property" and copyright). Rather than an "exploration" of the new technology, these works suggest a Freudian avoidance of the potential shocks this technology implies through repetition. The psychological dangers unheimlich works may pose are avoided in advance through the rubric of obsolescence and the repetitions inherent to remixing existing materials.


VI. Digital Rights Management (DRM)

The right to limit access (via DRM) is the key aspect to ownership of digital works. Control over the right to read digital works finds its basis in the older laws designed to control printing and publication: copyright laws that codify assumptions about physical objects and the access and ownership of those works.

Because digital works are (primarily) second order non-object based artifacts, i.e. they are works without particular physical form (and therefore not limited by natural conditions of scarcity, manufacturing and material), increasing the ability of the producer to control their digital "property" even when sold to another person becomes an inevitable consequence of the steady shift to digital technology for creating and distributing all aspects of culture.

The transformation of everything that can be digitized into a digital form (the universal aspiration to the state of information) follows from the logic of DRM: the conflict over intellectual property is therefore inevitable. Object-based works automatically become the consumer's property, and can be given, resold, etc. once possession is attained, but for non-object based works the digital rights management schemas mean that digital works lack this possession-based dimension of property. Even after a work has been purchased, the banking model for ownership obtains: once possession is attained, the consumer does not own the work -- they only have a contingent right to read; in its hypothetical form, consumers are unable to resell, give, lend, or share any of the digital works contained by DRM. The mechanisms that control access to digital works also reproduce the conflict they were meant to resolve in a vicious cycle where each new restriction on the right to read intensifies the conflict. In its most basic form, this is a conflict over whether non-object based works are entitled to the same treatment as object-based works.


Conclusion: The Digital Aura

The "aura" of a work of art can be regarded as the tertiary interpretative effect resulting from a third interpretative act that uses past experience to create an awareness of that object exceeding both its physical form and its relationship to tradition. This difference allows the existence of "aura" (contra Benjamin) in mechanically reproduced works, via mechanical reproduction -- and thus, also allows "aura" in digital (art) works. Awareness of this kind becomes possible through reproduction even though it exists to lesser degrees in traditional societies where awareness of the art works are "reproduced" as linguistic artifacts rather than visual ones. This awareness is embued with special values (as Benjamin has observed). The earlier works can be understood as being subjects of verbal (non-visual) reproduction and the awareness this produces generates "aura" that is consistent with that generated by digital/mechanical reproduction.

Thus reproduction -- mechanical or digital -- is the source and vehicle for a work's "aura." A spectator's encounter with a "famous" work as an object is distinctly different than their encounter with an unknown work because it is the wide dissemination of that work through reproduction that creates the particular experience: cultural tourism is based on this idea of encounters with originals whose aura is a function of their being widely reproduced. The more fully a work is disseminated, the greater its "aura." Andy Warhol's persona, and his construction of superstars who are "famous for being famous" [6] demonstrates the transient, contingent nature of this conception of "aura," its socially-constructed nature, and its reliance upon reproduction for existence.

The semiotic/instrumental immortality enshrined as the aura of the digital reifies an ideology where the work of "genius" (literally) "lives forever" within the simultaneous frameworks of DRM and digital reproduction. The ownership of ideas is coupled with the specific material form those ideas take within digital technology. This semiotic immortality becomes instrumental immortality in the realm of digital code executed autonomously by machines: this is the "aura of the digital."

The aura of the digital signals the digital as the site of a specific reification dramatizing an underlying conflict between production and consumption within capitalism itself -- that is, between the accumulation of capital and its expenditure. By enabling the fantasy of accumulation without consumption, digital technology becomes an ideological force reifying the conflict between the limits imposed on the value of capital via expenditure and inflation, and the demand implicit in the capitalist ideology of escalating value. The reciprocity between production and consumption is necessary for the accumulation of wealth (capital) to be anything other than an economic pathology. The lacuna that accumulated wealth presents is one where inflation appears as the necessary corrective -- devaluing the accumulated capital in order to maintain the circulation necessary to maintain the dialectic of production and consumption: when capital collects, its value must diminish. The aura of the digital upsets this dialectic by reifying only one side of the construction -- the illusion of production of capital without its necessary consumption. The aura of the digital is thus a symptom of the structure of a pathological capitalist ideology becoming realized as a fantasy of digital technology without regard for the illusory nature of this transfer, or the reality of the expenditures required in the creation of the digital itself.

Digital technology, its development, deployment, production and access all demand a large expenditure of capital both to create and to maintain. The aura of the digital separates the results from its technological foundation -- the illusion of value created without expenditure: a pathological form of capitalist ideology that demands the implementation of controls over digital technology (DRM) as it aspires towards the state of information and assumes the "aura of information" is coincident with the aura of the digital. Even though the origins of the "aura of information" reside in the technical parameters of the digital, its role in the capitalist ideology-fantasy of wealth accumulation renders its conception of the digital not only fundamentally flawed, it is also a formulation that supports the disenfranchisement of human agency previously discussed in Labor/Commodity/Automation as the logical development of an earlier ideology of autonomous achievement that served to justify the social order of the nineteenth century. [7] By naturalizing the concentration of capital, the aura of information transforms digital technology into a magical resource that can be used without consumption or diminishment.

The initial effect of this magical resource appeared as the "dot.com bubble" at the end of the 20th century when the internet first emerged as a popular, commercially exploitable medium. The collapse of this period was inevitable since its economy depended upon the exploitation of the production without consumption fantasy. The shift in emphasis towards various forms of "DRM" began even before these controls were implemented by technology itself in the form of technology patents, copyright-based registrations and "subscriptions" to software etc. This initial phase seamlessly moved into the technological DRM. It affirms those connections between the aura of the digital and the aura of information needed to justify capitalist imposition of controls (DRM) over intellectual property. Otherwise, the aura of the digital threatens the status quo because the illusion of profit without expenditure suggests the possibility that the digital could realize a situation where capitalism itself ceases to exist.

Thus, the aura of the digital is Janus-like, suggesting a magical production without consumption, reifying this fundamental capitalist ideology at the same time as it implies an elision of capitalism itself. However, all these suggestions proceed from a false consciousness based on a refusal to acknowledge the real expenditures required in the creation, production, maintenance, and access to the digital technologies and the materials made available through those technologies which make these ideological fantasies possible. In this regard, the "aura of the digital" can be identified with a pathological myopia: it is implicit in the anti-capitalist fantasy of an "end of scarcity" abolishing capitalism, and for the capitalist ideology reified within the illusion of production without consumption. Each belief is therefore a false consciousness: a product of each denying the actual physicality, and therefore the expenditures and costs, of digital technology.


Notes
---------------

[1] Hans Abbing. Why are Artists Poor? The Exceptional Economy of the Arts, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2004, p. 307.

[2] Walter Benjamin. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in Illuminations, Harry Zohn, trans., New York: Schocken Books, 1969, p. 221.

[3] Ralph Abraham, Peter Broadwell and Ami Radunskaya. Mimi and the Illuminati: Notes, Available online at: http://pages.pomona.edu/~aer04747/mimi/miminotes.html.

[4] The concept of the "right to read" originates with Richard Stallman, of the Free Software Foundation.

[5] Vlada Petric. Constructivism in Films: The Man with a Movie Camera, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. See also: Vertov, Dziga. Kino-Eye: The Writings of Dzige Vertov, Annette Michselson, ed., Kevin O'Brien, trans., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

[6] Patrick Smith. Andy Warhol's Art and Films, Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1986, pp. 195-202.

[7] Michael Betancourt. "Labor/Commodity/Automation," CTheory, event-scene e133. Available online at: http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=428.


--------------------

Michael Betancourt is a multi-disciplinary artist, curator and avant-garde theorist. He has been making movies, site-specific installations, and non-traditional art forms (and exhibiting his work in unseen, unusual, or public spaces) since 1992.



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24-04-16_ Hold On to Your Dreams: Arthur Russell
26-04-16_ JACKSON MAC LOW WAS NOT A_LONE (RIDER)
13-04-16_ David Hammons (revisited)
10-04-16_ The moment of enlightenmend is a sound
24-04-16_ Mécaniques discursives [Yannick Jacquet (antiVj) y Fred Penelle]
24-04-16_ Cine sin Cine*
13-04-16_ Venecia... un bazar del (post)capitalismo atolondrado
10-05-15_10-05-15_13-04-16_ ¿QUÉ FUERZA LE QUEDA AL ARTE?
30-09-12_ CARLOS + Armando Montesinos
30-09-12_ Réquiem por el artista invisible
15-01-12_ El auténtico ready-made
15-01-12_ Duelo y Melancolía: la materia oscura.
11-11-11_ Homenaje al cine analógico de Tacita Dean en la Tate Modern
21-10-12_ #angelica's
06-07-11_ Pep Agut * Problemas de Horizonte
14-10-11_ El arte de la reproducción no mecánica en la era de la reproducción digital
27-04-11_ÁNIMA ELÉCTRICA
06-07-11_ Delia Derbyshire
06-07-11_ ¿Crítica institucional?
24-04-11_ TÁNDEM ELÉCTRICO
24-04-11_ Punk y arte de vanguardia
15-01-12_ The politics of the impure
13-03-11_ Gerhard Richter quotes...
18-04-11_ GUSTAVO VON HA * double crossing
02-03-11_ Spanish Pavilion at the Venice Biennale
19-04-11_ NEGADA, AbiertA y desnudA
02-03-11_ La "trampa" del arte español
18-04-11_ ¿Existe el arte español fuera de España?
02-03-11_ La Lista muy INCREIBLE [ las 20 Españolas con más poder en el Arte español ]
02-03-11_ Lista de las 20 Españolas con más poder en el mundo del Arte Contemporáneo
21-01-11_ Estas fotografías son basura
07-02-11_ WARHOL PERSONA
25-01-11_ EDL invita a la proyección del filme "La última cinta", basado en la obra de Samuel Beckett
21-01-11_ CULTURA O BARBARIE
24-01-11_ Coppola: 'Entramos en una nueva era y quizá el arte sea gratis'
25-01-11_ Susan Philipsz versus Ángela de la Cruz...
01-01-11_ AMANDA
21-11-10_ Golan Levin hace arte que vuelve a mirarte
26-12-10_ Featured Resources: November 2010 * Selected by Peggy Ahwesh
01-01-11_ ENANOS ENOJOS TRENZADOS A OJO
06-12-10_ The mathematics of music * an interview with Ryoji Ikeda
21-09-10_ ELVIS WAS HERE
31-08-10_ I'm not here, this isn't happening
02-06-10_ UBU: Featured resources * June 2010 by Rob Young
25-07-10_ SUNDAY MORNING AND I'M FALLING
28-03-10_ Opus 4 nº2: Ostinato Frozen Inner
27-08-15_ Entrevista * José Luis Brea
07-02-10_ Canibalismo en el MUSEO del PRADO
14-03-10_  Storm de Hirsch * Peyote Queen
28-03-10_ THE MALADY OF WRITING
22-11-09_ EL CHICO DE LA MOTO LLEGA A LA CUEVA: B (fp) EN TRES ACTOS
23-11-09_ PEP AGUT * Partes de
29-11-09_ Vexation Island * Rodney Graham
22-11-09_ EL CASO DEL FALSO LAWRENCE WEINER
15-11-09_ CHINESE WHISPERS
28-02-10_ EL SIGNO DE DUCHAMP
09-10-09_ Juzgar a los artistas
15-03-10_ WATER IN MILK EXISTS * metacomentario
26-12-10_ WATER IN MILK EXISTS * LAWRENCE WEINER
18-10-09_ El tercer umbral * José Luis Brea
03-09-09_ Prière de toucher
02-09-09_ On Game Art, Circuit Bending and Speedrunning as Counter-Practice: 'Hard' and 'Soft' Nonexistence
02-09-09_ PIPILOTTI (again and "againts")
07-09-09_ Reflexiones sueltas: Bienal de Venecia 2009
07-09-09_ El problema Barceló
13-09-09_ Electronic Music and Films from the Middle Eastern Avant-Garde (1959-2001
27-06-09_ Jean-Luc Moerman
17-09-09_ El mapa del silencio y/o las pequeñas escaramuzas + extra plus
17-09-09_ El pabellón embarrado
13-09-09_ El Mapa del Silencio (II) - Brumaria
12-07-09_ Nostalgia is no substitute for criticism
31-05-09_ Erkki Huhtamo on Paul DeMarinis' work
13-09-09_ Estado del arte: la institución como poder de las "estéticas de lo pseudo"
17-09-09_ OH, Chris [Burden]
12-07-09_ CRITICAL RUN
28-04-09_ Ramón de Soto * Reflections on Memory
17-09-09_ La SoNrIsA HeLaDa
17-09-09_ UBU 1000
29-03-09_ Andreas Gursky World 2002
28-02-09_ Marcel Duchamp y la CRISIS
13-09-09_ José Luis Brea * 2 x 1 [URS + NEA]
17-09-09_ Joseph Beuys * Transformer
13-09-09_ VALIE EXPORT * remote... remote
29-03-09_ ¿Qué tipo de artista eres?
11-01-09_ UBU * December 2008
28-03-09_ GIORGIO MORANDI * Resistence and Persistence
29-03-09_ A few things i know about pornography
25-01-09_ Pep Agut * "L'Iguana" i altres regions
02-01-09_ Francis Alÿs * The Politics of Rehearsal
05-07-09_ Tan íntimo y éfimero
29-03-09_ El gran memorial
18-09-09_ El día que me disparararon
01-12-08_ Lawrence Weiner * A bit of matter...
01-01-09_ Henri Michaux * Images du monde visionnaire
03-05-09_ Crítica Institucional
01-01-09_ GARY HILL * 9 works
24-11-08_ OTRO ESPACIO para la difusión del arte contemporáneo
01-11-08_ MARADONA... nuevo seleccionador de ARGENTINA (qué gran país)
26-10-08_ Gerhard Richter * Overpainted Photographs
28-03-09_ Vivir para ver... (on ¡! Ana Laura Aláez)
01-11-08_ William Claxton (R.I.P)
01-11-08_ Apenas
28-04-09_ Oliver Payne & Nick Relph * Mixtape (2002)
26-10-08_ La bienal de Sevilla se conecta
05-10-08_ Art Keeps On Slipping Into the Future
11-10-08_ LUZBIT * Festival de imagen fotográfica
18-09-09_ Doll Clothes (1975) * Cindy Sherman
18-09-09_ Grace Jones * Corporate Cannibal
20-09-08_ Drums, desire…2008 * Francesca Llopis
14-09-08_ SUBASTA: DAMIEN HIRST !¡
18-09-08_ Apología del error
18-09-08_ Acupuntura visual
11-10-08_ John Lennon & Yoko Ono
02-09-08_ Cheminée Anaglyphe * Marcel Duchamp (obra última ;-)
08-08-08_ If I Can't Dance, I Don't Want To Be Part Of Your Revolution
11-08-08_ Ramón de Soto *  Metal interior
31-08-08_ UBU * Recursos selectos [Agosto]
02-11-08_ Guy Ben-Ner * [Videos (1999-2007]
02-09-08_ Bilbao, Juan Muñoz... y la cocina de autor (3x1)
02-09-08_ Sobre la legitimación y apropiación en el arte
02-09-08_ ACASO
22-07-08_ Espejo Humano (de carne?)
22-07-08_ Chuck Close with Phong Bui
22-07-08_ Juan Muñoz * Last conversation piece
22-07-08_ Olafur Eliasson * Protocinematic visions
22-07-08_ Marcel Broodthaers * Le Corbeau et le Renard (1967)
30-06-08_ CONPARADA_01 *  Conferencia de Fernando Castro y concierto de Juan Hidalgo
02-09-08_ El crítico como "disc-jockey"
09-06-08_ Cildo, un artista cero dolar
15-06-08_ Thom Yorke *  No ser nada, no estar aquí 
06-06-08_ STAN DOUGLAS * Video works (ohjú)
22-05-08_ Superdome
06-06-08_ ROTO IDILIO NORTEAMERICANO * MUSAC_ Dan Atoe
25-05-08_ La vida es una exposición
25-05-08_ Biopiracy, the new colonialism
25-05-08_ John Baldessari * 3 films 3
26-06-08_ MP + MP ROSADO * entrevista aún por realizar... [actualizado 15_06_'08]
28-04-08_ Del salón recreativo a la realidad virtual
04-05-08_ Anthology of Surreal Cinema: Vol. 1
25-05-08_ UBU * April 2008
19-04-08_ ¡Viva la viscosidad!
10-05-08_ Rodney Graham
27-04-08_ Marcel Duchamp vs. Stéphane Mallarmé
23-04-08_ Nadie es inocente
18-04-08_ DIGITAL MEDIA 1.0
16-04-08_ El arte como ONG
20-04-08_ Eve Sussman & Rufus Corporation: en el filo ideológico de las formas cinematográficas de gestión productiva
20-04-08_ My kid could paint that
31-03-08_ Nuevas dimensiones
24-03-08_ Harun Farocki - Selected Works (1967-2001)
12-03-08_ Richard Serra * Hand caching lead
28-03-08_ Sam Taylor Woods * Video Works
25-03-08_ Un castillo en ruinas, la decodificación del imperio
02-04-08_ Inteligencia Colectiva y Redes Creativas
24-03-08_ La oscura vida de un pintor marginal
16-03-08_ Lamentablemente, Muñoz Molina
17-03-08_ INFRAESTRUCTURAS EMERGENTES
24-03-08_ Sueños y pesadillas en clave ética 
25-03-08_ Sobre el planteamiento de IVO MESQUITA para la 28 Bienal de Sao Paulo
27-02-08_ How To Survive as an Independent Artist
11-02-08_ The crux of the critique
24-03-08_ Candidatos al MACBA
24-03-08_ Políticas de la visualidad * EL LUGAR DEL ARTE
24-03-08_ Arkipelag TV * Hans Ulrich Öbrist
19-02-08_ Landings 6+7: sobre avestruces, Arthur Danto y el fin del arte
24-03-08_ Paul McCarthy's Low Life Slow Life: Part #1
09-02-08_ La EDAD de ORO
04-02-08_ Double Agent * ICA London
24-03-08_ Heterocronías y estratos * Nicolas Bourriaud en Murcia.
03-02-08_ Interview with Juha Huuskonen (Pixelache)
01-02-08_ Una exposición de mierda
24-03-08_ El intelectual y el administrador
08-06-08_ Shut Up and Paint * On Julian Schnabel music
26-01-08_ Cómo cobrar 12 millones por algo titulado 'La imposibilidad física de la muerte en la mente de alguien vivo'
25-01-08_ Maria Teresa Hincapié * 1954 - 2008 
25-03-08_ Siete motivos para no asociarse a VEGAP, y uno solo para pertenecer a ella.
26-03-08_ Les Grands Ensembles * Pierre Huyghe
16-01-08_ arcad[i]as y convulsiones, perro muerto en tintorería: los fuertes (II)
24-03-08_ A journey that wasn't * Pierre Huyghe
30-12-07_ Dirty Dali * A private view 
24-03-08_ MONOTO * Entrevista
27-12-07_ Interview with Mark Mothersbaugh (DEVO)
05-01-08_ Paul McCarthy at the S.M.A.K
01-01-08_ El fenómeno vvork.com
22-12-07_ Devo * Bruce Conner
04-01-08_ Courbet indomable
26-12-07_ Camuflaje artístico para la guerra
26-12-07_ El artista como "War Profiteer"
01-01-08_ Featured Resources: December 2007 Selected by Alejandra & Aeron
16-12-07_ Emotional Sytems, contemporary art between emotion and reason
25-12-07_ Feministaldia 2007: taller de GWLP sobre mujer, postporno y hardcore
19-12-07_ Arcad[i]as y convulsiones perro muerto en tintorería: los fuertes (I)
04-01-08_ ¡VIVA EL FRACASO!
16-12-07_ Jaume Plensa * Entrevista
16-12-07_ 4 Películas * Gordon Matta-Clark
12-01-08_ El aura de lo digital
25-11-07_ Portikus * Ben van Berkel & the Theatre of Immanence
25-11-07_ Siempretodavía * Everstill
21-11-07_ Más y Más Malas Artes
21-11-07_ Reina la razón en El País????
22-11-07_ Sinestesia (en la era digital)
28-11-07_ Jorge Diezma * Eso ahí queda
24-11-07_ PALERMO at Duesseldorf
12-01-08_ HÉRCULES: devaluación y plusvalía [ dossier AGUT, Pep]
18-10-10_ Martin Heidegger * La pregunta por la técnica
05-11-07_ Pep Agut * HERCULES
06-11-07_ Hackers And Painters
15-10-07_ Sound is Material
01-10-07_ Who's there...
10-10-07_ Formas de institucionalización de las obras de net.art en el mundo del arte
09-10-07_ Val del Omar. FUEGO EN CASTILLA
04-10-07_ Ibon Aranberri: la memoria estancada
24-11-07_ The Aura of the Digital
27-09-07_ Arqueologías del futuro
29-09-07_ Artistas del No
23-09-07_ Lost. Aitor Lajarín
18-09-07_ La simpleza
25-09-07_Transient
23-09-07_ Passengers
10-09-07_ Un caldo indigesto
10-10-07_ The Fundamentals of Sonic Art and Sound Design
25-09-07_ Itinerario visual: abriendo ventanas (puertas)
07-09-07_ Imágenes del otro lado
27-09-07_ La reflexión de la mirada
02-09-07_ Bodypoliticx
26-08-07_ Concretismo  & Neoconcretismo
10-08-07_ Game Art
26-08-07_ La (im)posibilidad de atrapar el fantasma del deseo (José Luis Guerín)
26-08-07_ Nada se destruye, todo se transforma
25-08-07_ Reconstrucción del vacío
25-08-07_ Inland Empire: la esquizofrenia inevitable [1 & 2]
30-08-07_ A-desk: documenta en pocas palabras
01-08-07_ Los timos con más arte
24-07-07_ Las Vanguardias
09-07-07_ Cultural Institutions & Community * MAC
01-08-07_ UBU * Featured resources_ summer '07
07-07-07_ Stroom Den Hagg
03-07-07_  Formas de institucionalización textual de las obras de net.art en el mundo del arte.
31-01-08_ Andy Warhol * Life and Death (2006)
01-07-07_ Documenta sin documentos
26-06-07_ De Julia Fullerton-Batten a Seton Smith pasando por Rineke Djistra PHE07
05-07-07_ La cultura del fraude
21-06-07_ El regreso al orden *  Sobre la 52 Bienal de Venecia
28-06-07_ Neo Rauch at the MET
06-06-07_ UbuWeb Featured Resources June 2007
17-05-07_ Killing Time * Cuban Artists
17-05-07_ Access Denied
14-05-07_ Dana Schutz * Stand by Earth Man
10-05-07_ Cultura RAM * José Luis Brea
07-05-07_ CENTROS DE ARTE:  Chus Martínez y Ferran Barenblit
06-05-07_ Ireland at Venice 2007
03-05-07_ John Baldessari: Music
31-05-07_ El mundo del arte
23-04-07_ Nos Pagan por limpiar, no por hacer arte
16-04-07_ Time Based Text, the gesture in computer art
16-04-07_ Proyecto: La institucionalización del arte en españa
15-04-07_ The Abjection Collection
13-04-07_ Malota en Mad is Mad
09-04-07_ UbuWeb Featured Resources April 2007 Selected by Anthony Huberman
05-04-07_ Procesado de imagen. Silencio
02-04-07_ Imágenes congeladas
02-04-07_ El soporte sigue en la pared
29-05-07_ Beckett directs Beckett
23-03-07_ A Bit O' White * Een Neetje Wit * Un Peu de Blanc
20-03-07_ Alex Katz * The Jewish Museum
20-03-07_ Spanish Painting from el Greco to Picasso
20-03-07_ Wilhelm Sasnal 
23-07-07_ El autor como productor
10-03-07_ Kosuth: "Vivimos un saludable estado de descontrol"
08-03-07_ Christiane Löhr * Naturaleza Silenciosa
07-03-07_ Scorpio Rising * Kenneth Anger
07-03-07_ Kubelkas talks
04-03-07_ ¿Qué historia es la que nos quieren contar?
12-03-07_ La mala crítica
05-07-07_ Retrato del artista como crítico cultural
03-03-07_ Dan Flavin * La mística del material
26-02-07_ Péter Forgács - Wittgenstein Tractatus
23-02-07_ Cross sections of yesterday * Gordon Matta Clark
22-02-07_ 'Lost' y 'Desperate Housewives', de David Lachapelle
22-02-07_ ARCO: decoración (excesívamente) cara
11-07-07_ (Re)construyendo un afuera
06-11-07_ Matthew Barney: The Cremaster Cycle
19-02-07_ Francis Bacon (con un par de huevos) ejem 
12-02-07_ These are pearls that were his eyes
11-02-07_ Cardiff & Bures Miller: La metafísica del sonido
11-02-07_ LA EXPOSICIÓN INVISIBLE. Obras sonoras del siglo XX
11-02-07_ Art Fair TOKYO 2007
09-02-07_ Nuevo arte casero
11-07-07_ One11 [1992] * A film by John Cage
03-02-07_ El profeta de la nueva melancolía
02-02-07_ People Like Us & Ergo Phizmiz - Boots!
01-02-07_ Del lápiz al píxel * Fantasmagoría. Dibujo en movimiento
01-02-07_ Transforming e-waste into art
28-01-07_ Hacer cantera
07-07-07_ Art market stupidity
22-01-07_ The AD Generator
22-01-07_ The way we loop "Now"
18-01-07_Index. Coup de parole
19-07-07_ Interview with Art Orienté Objet
12-01-07_ Piece by Piece
04-01-07_ Ten Commandments for Gilbert & George (1995) 
02-01-07_ Premio Turner. La hora del cambio?
06-01-07_ Joan Morey: «El artista y su trabajo son objetos fácilmente reemplazables en este sistema»
29-12-06_ Slomo Video
28-12-06_ Audio-Visual Art and VJ Culture
04-08-08_ Popaganda: the art crimes of Ron English
19-12-06_ Se busca a la chica que va enmedio en el taxi
18-10-10_ La obra de arte en la época de su reproductibilidad técnica
15-12-06_ Keith Tyson
16-12-06_ Texte zur Kunst * Porno
13-12-09_ Drawing Restraint 9 * Matthew Barney [ updated 20_11_'07 ]
16-12-06_ Sampler * Ricardo Echevarría
11-12-06_ The projection project
09-12-06_ Bill Viola * Anthem
07-12-06_ Una mala broma
15-12-06_ Vicent Todolí * entrevista
09-12-06_ Sergio Prego * Black Monday
03-12-06_ Stan Douglas *  Viena Secession
02-12-06_ Vídeo y puertas al campo
30-11-06_ Lyon Biennial 2007 
24-11-06_ La visibilidad de un artista
23-11-06_ Sobre la idea de hablar * Pep Agut
27-11-06_ Chomsky vs Foucault. Human Nature * Justice versus Power.
15-11-06_ Soledad de unas uvas
10-11-06_ Alex Katz Paints Ada * The Jewish Museum
09-11-06_Drawing
22-11-06_ How Art Made the World
15-11-06_ Fuera de campo, con nosotros
02-11-06_Terayama Shuji - Experimental Image World
01-11-06_ Ampudia, la (in)digestión del arte
01-11-06_UbuWeb Featured Resources Nov-Dec 2006 Selected by Ingrid Schaffner
30-10-06_Prospección de un lugar * Taller Lara Almarcegui
30-10-06_Hacia la ciudad 'replicante'
01-11-06_Ritual Ov Psychick Youth
24-10-06_Robert Morris * Exchange
23-10-06_El código morse
22-10-06_David Link * Poetry Machine 1.0
26-10-06_¿Una napsterización del arte?
18-10-06_TEOR/eTica * Estrecho dudoso
18-10-06_Turning * Antony and the Johnsons with Charles Atlas
18-10-06_Dos españoles en la Bienal de Sao Paulo
01-10-07_ Jonas Mekas * 365 Shorts
09-10-06_Gary Hill * Como suenan las imágenes
16-10-06_Disinformation TV: The Complete Series
03-10-06_Unbounded Freedom
30-09-06_Muntean/Rosenblum * Memento mori
29-09-06_P2P Art
29-09-06_Intentos de escapada
28-09-06_ Bustamante, en el extremo
27-09-06_Piracy is the New Black (Again)
09-10-06_... aquí ...ahora ...nunca * josé maldonado
21-09-06_CCNOA (Center for Contemporary Non-Objective Art)
28-09-06_Pasaporte a Berlín
20-09-06_Eva hesse * Jewish Museum N.Y.C
27-09-07_ Stan Brakhage * 2 de 300 ( o más )
18-09-06_Raymond Pettibon * El copyright obstaculiza la creación
17-09-06_José Luis Brea * El tercer umbral
14-09-06_CONFLUX 2006
13-09-06_Bienal Internacional de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla 2
13-09-06_Yve-A. Bois: « La crítica precisa más discusión y menos poesía »
12-09-06_On collaboration
09-09-06_Illusion is a revolutionary weapon
01-06-07_AHmérica !¿ [ crónicas americanas ] vol.1 + 2 + 3
07-09-06_Abstracción cálida y guerra fría. 1946-1956
06-09-06_Done Anything Dangerous Lately?
05-09-06_The Pile
04-09-06_Lewis LaCook * The Ghosts of Colors
02-09-06_Live webcast of Burning Man
01-09-06_The art of provoking the art world
13-09-06_Bruce Nauman * Videos
20-08-06_The wonderful world of irational.org
20-08-06_Desestructurando la imagen
18-08-06_Interview * Ricardo Miranda Zúñiga
18-08-06_The Residents * The River of Crime
17-08-06_TV Party!
15-08-06_The Eighth Square * Museum Ludwig
17-08-06_Colección(ando) * CAAC
13-08-06_GLOBOS SONDA * Reinventar la modernidad
13-08-06_Détournement as Negation and Prelude
31-10-10_ Steve Roden * Soundwalk
10-08-06_Werk Ltd
10-08-06_Nothing * Nada
06-08-06_PICNIC ‘06 Cross Media Week
06-08-06_Yes Bruce Nauman
07-09-06_The Dawn of DIMI
04-08-06_Scope Miami 2006
04-08-06_Buchenwald Memorial * Esther Shalev-Gerz
31-07-06_Cybernetic Serendipity
30-07-06_Los comisarios se la juegan
06-08-06_Tacita Dean * Esquivar la ficción
26-07-06_The Best Surprise Is No Surprise
26-07-06_NO(HA)LUGAR. Balance(s) del arte español.
24-07-06_Obra de arte asesina?
24-07-06_En el país de Alicia
22-07-06_ORIGEN de Bleda y Rosa
18-07-08_ Dan Graham & The Static (Audio Arts Supplement, 1979)
20-07-06_Guy Debord - Critique de la separation
02-12-07_ Ernie Gehr * Serene Velocity
30-06-06_Matthew Barney * Drawingrestraint
30-06-06_Radio Gallery
30-06-06_Los tiempos muertos de Alicia Framis
29-06-06_Guerrilla Girls * Going ape
26-07-06_Juan Hidalgo * biografías y corbatas
28-06-06_ Damien Hirst * En descomposición
27-06-06_PhotoEspaña premia la pasión por el detalle de Hiroshi Sugimoto
26-06-06_This is America * Centraal Museum, Utrecht
30-06-06_Interview * United Visual Artists
26-06-06_La Espera * Avelino Sala
26-06-06_Switch on the power! * Ruido y políticas musicales
22-06-06_5 Days to the End of Art
26-06-06_Sonar... Sonar... Sonar...
16-06-06_Santiago Sierra * Del minimalismo al sentimiento de culpa
16-06-06_Salla Tykkä * De Appel
16-06-06_Especulaciones aun tiempo
13-06-06_Storefront for Art and Architecture
11-06-06_Yoshua Okon * Realidad y ficción no son categorías ni aisladas ni abstractas
10-06-06_Alva Noto * Fades
04-09-07_ José Luis Brea * Art.matrix
08-06-06_La ascesis de Malevich
08-06-06_D3Sombra * Emanuele Mazza
08-06-06_Técnica, ética y violencia del sentido
08-06-06_CENDEAC * Actividades Junio-Julio 2006
08-06-06_For Immediate Release
05-06-06_Michel Foucault * Of Other Spaces (1967), Heterotopias.
05-06-06_Matthew Barney versus Donkey Kong
04-06-06_Montserrat Soto * Archivo de archivos (1998-2006)...
03-06-06_Chema Alvargonzález * Bienvenidos al mercado irreal
05-06-06_Kunsthaus Graz * Inventory
01-06-06_Antoni Abad gana el Ars Electronica
05-06-06_Robert Gober
05-06-06_Project Arts Centre
24-05-06_Distrito cu4tro * Atelier van Lieshout
24-05-06_Galería Juana de Aizpuru * MACHÍN
24-05-06_Museum Ludwig, Cologne
23-05-06_ediciones originales * carles congost the congosound
05-06-06_Marcel Duchamp: The Creative Act
20-05-06_'Efecto Doppler' en la Tate Modern
05-06-06_DESTE Foundation (Athens)
06-06-06_Huis | Festival a/d Werf, Utrecht // De Appel, Amsterdam
06-06-06_Tina B — The Prague Contemporary Art Festival
07-06-06_Shock tactics
17-05-06_La historia no se repite
07-06-06_sonambiente berlin 2006
07-06-06_Netherlands Architecture Institute * Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen * Nederlands fotomuseum
04-05-06_CONVOCATORIA DE PROYECTOS MADRID ABIERTO 2007
07-06-06_Akureyri Art Museum, Iceland
07-06-06_frieze announces international art writer's prize
04-05-06_MUSAC * Globos sonda /Trials Balloons
30-04-06_Patricia Gadea, la oscura luz de una pintora
04-05-06_Joseph Beuys Sonne Statt Reagan, (1982): el vídeo.
04-05-06_Outrageous and Contagious
28-04-06_Lawrence Weiner * X Y&Z
28-04-06_Que no ondeen las banderas
28-04-06_John Martin, lux ex tenebris
28-04-06_Agirregoikoa o no ceder al deseo del amo
07-06-06_e-flux projects * Martha Rosler Library
26-04-06_Representaciones Árabes Contemporáneas. La Ecuación Iraquí
25-04-06_Las listas del Mal (en este caso pintores)
07-06-06_Tom Sachs in Milan * Fondazione Prada
23-04-06_Tecnologías y estrategias para la creación artística * Altea Mayo '06
22-04-06_Fernando Renes * Mis animales y yo
21-04-06_Daniel Buren * Les Cabanyes de ceràmica i spill
21-04-06_Serpentine Gallery and e-flux announce Agency for Unrealised Projects (AUP)
21-04-06_WHY BERLIN ! No. 6 – Exhibitions in Berlin April – August 2006 and more
20-04-06_MIRADOR 06 * O.K Centre for Contemporary Art
20-04-06_Sin.con.texto * Una nueva velocidad
02-04-08_ Instinto Básico: Trauma y Re-atrincheramiento 2000-2004
22-04-06_José Luis Brea * La crítica de arte - después de la fe en el arte
19-04-06_El ir y venir de África
19-04-06_Thomas Locher * el escenario de la ley
19-04-06_Pierre Huyghe * Lo que la verdad esconde
10-04-06_CFP: CULTURE ZONE 06—5 DAYS, 5 THEMES
08-04-06_Oportuna y chocante: Bienal de Berlín
08-04-06_Diango Hernández, el artista demediado
08-04-06_Las esculturas de luz de Christian Herdeg
08-04-06_Joana Pimentel
07-04-06_Timeless Universe * Universo Atemporal
02-04-06_The Youth of Today * Schirn Kunsthalle
01-04-06_Peter Zimmermann y la fábrica de chocolate
01-04-06_Una idea es una idea es una idea * Luis Bisbe
02-04-06_Pintura ni en pintura
30-03-06_MADRID PROCESOS 06 Convocatoria de producción para proyectos artísticos
31-03-06_Takeaway exhibition highlights
30-03-06_ARTIUM de Álava convoca su programa de BECAS '06
29-03-06_Frankfurter Kunstverein * A New Departure
27-03-06_El Retorno de J.V. Marjov a Valencia
26-03-06_Calendar of upcoming events
27-03-06_Un misterio de 38 toneladas (sigue la saga)
26-03-06_Para todos los públicos
25-03-06_Juan López, desde lo público
03-04-06_Douglas Gordon
25-03-06_Humildad y gloria * FCS
24-03-06_MUSAC | Lo Siniestro
22-03-06_Preus museum | Skate Culture
22-03-06_ARTIUM abre a la Red su Base de Datos
29-03-06_Hiato Berlines | crónica dxd
22-03-06_INTRACITY- art públic i mediació social
21-03-06_III Jornadas de Arte Contemporáneo
21-03-06_Signs of Psyche. Psychoanalytical Perspectives on Art
19-03-06_Eulàlia Valldosera | Lugares de Trabajo
18-03-06_Threshold | Faisal Abdu’Allah & Charlie Dark
17-03-06_Hardcore
17-03-06_N e t e r o t o p i a
16-03-06_Reclaim the Spectrum | Festival Zemos98 8ª Edición
16-03-06_Stefano Cagol | Galleria Civica di Arte Contemporanea
15-03-06_Subterráneos | Seminario de Manuel Delgado y Compañía
13-03-06_Guillermo Paneque
13-03-06_Guff and nonsense
12-03-06_Desde el lado trágico de la revolución conservadora
10-03-06_Young British | British art and a scent of scandal
09-03-06_Otto Dix
05-03-06_Joan Fontcuberta | Googlegrams
03-03-06_Deva Sand
01-03-06_An art that eats its own head
28-02-06_III Convocatoria de Becas / MUSAC
24-02-06_Revoluciones Por Minuto
24-02-06_Ángela de la Cruz
23-02-06_Esta casa es una ruina / MP & MP Rosado / "Desajustes
17-02-06_4º Encuentro Internacional de Performance
21-03-06_La pupila de cualquier bicho... / Entrevista con Jorge Diezma
17-02-06_International Biennial of Contemporary Art of Seville (BIACS)
17-02-06_Paul Sharitts en EACC
07-02-06_Archivo F.X.: La ciudad vacía
07-02-06_MUSAC EN ARCO
07-02-06_ENTREVISTA: Benjamin Buchloh
03-02-06_300 Words from London: Dan Flavin - All Light Now
03-02-06_Fernando Sinaga, territorio introspectivo
03-02-06_Ugo Rondinone
03-02-06_Valérie Mréjen
01-02-06_Going Out in Berlin: New Faust Opera, Beuys on Film, Forsythe
29-01-06_Curro González y Manuel Ocampo, cara a cara
29-01-06_Y de repente... Roman Signer
29-01-06_Golpes de efecto / James Rielly
26-01-06_ OVERGADEN, Copenhagen, Denmark is seeking an Artistic Director as of May 1, 2006.
25-01-06_Contra la Desgana / Jesús Palomino
27-01-06_«Bricomanía» con Jan de Cock
27-01-06_Is Damien Hirst the most powerful person in art?
23-01-06_HIRAKI SAWA
23-01-06_Entrevista a Pedro G. Romero
23-01-06_Rosemarie Trockel: Subversivamente femenina
20-01-06_Crítica: What Good Are the Arts?, by John Carey
19-01-06_Perdidas 38 toneladas de Serra... Richard
17-01-06_Dark Places
18-01-06_WHY BERLIN ! No. 5 – Exhibitions in Berlin January / April 2006
17-01-06_CENDEAC
16-01-06_Contraluz / Sergio Barrera
16-01-06_Apaga y vámonos / Light art from artificial light
16-01-06_En la brecha / Sergio Prego
16-01-06_Copyright y el brillante futuro digital de los museos
13-01-06_Lessness / Ricardo Echevarría
12-01-06_fotoencuentros '06
12-01-06_UNSEEN CINEMA
12-01-06_5e Biennal d’Art Leandre Cristòfol
13-01-06_Festival Internacional MEM
13-01-06_Sin mancharse las manos
11-01-06_Class of Wolfgang Tillmans
11-01-06_Seeing Out Loud
10-01-06_KW Institute for Contemporary Art is looking for a curator
10-01-06_BENJAMIN H.D. BUCHLOH Y GAYATRI C. SPIVAK en el MACBA
05-01-06_VENTANAS ILUMINADAS. MP & MP ROSADO
05-01-06_ARTIUM 2006
04-01-06_The most buoyant art movements of 2005
04-01-06_Minimalism & Market
04-01-06_Jorge Diezma en Luis Adelantado proximamente...
22-12-05_Mike Kelly: Day is done
18-12-05_Ignasi Aballí, la obra abierta
08-11-09_ Vanessa Beecroft: Desnudas flores de ceniza"VB53"
18-12-05_Video Art On Video IPods
18-12-05_Cuando el vecino llama a la puerta
18-12-05_LA OBRA MIDE 3,5 METROS Y PESA 2,1 TONELADAS
15-12-05_Hiroshi Sugimoto: End of Time
15-12-05_Pedro Garhel: hasta pronto¡!
19-03-06_Entrevista: Martí Anson, artista
11-12-05_The Power Plant
07-12-05_Light Art from Artificial Light
05-12-05_Fatal Frames / Marcel Pey
03-12-05_Ojos que no ven...
01-12-05_A Brief History of Invisible Art
01-12-05_Olafur Eliasson, 'Notion Motion'
30-11-05_VIB / vídeo
30-11-05_Programa de Estudios Independientes MACBA
28-11-05_Fundación Tàpies: nuevo WEB...
25-11-05_MUSAC inaugurates five new exhibitions...
24-11-05_Rubell Family Collection
30-11-05_Beat less Beat / vídeo
22-11-05_SESSIONS eKAPA 2005
22-11-05_Right about Now: Art and Theory since the 1990s
12-11-05_Little Artist Versus Big Dealer in Sidewalk Showdown
03-11-05_Damián Ortega, ‘Escarabajo'
03-11-05_Permanencias Difusas / CAB
28-11-05_Ignasi Aballí 0-24h
31-10-05_Todo y más / Cabanyal Portes Obertes
31-10-05_The New Art Dealers Alliance (NADA)
23-10-05_Skateboard Fever: 50 años de cultura Skateboarding
22-10-05_Embankment / Rachel Whiteread
05-09-06_Hand Puppet
12-10-05_KEITH HARING. Obra completa sobre papel
11-10-05_Abierto Concurso para cubrir la plaza de Dirección Técnica de Hangar
11-10-05_HIGHLIGHTS. Prudencio Irazabal
08-10-05_ VERSION MAGAZINE 0.6 - COLORING BOOK
05-10-05_Surface Charge
29-09-05_Arts & LEISURE
29-09-05_Atumn in black and white
28-09-05_Francis Alÿs / Seven Walks
27-09-05_Robert Whitman
23-09-05_e-flux video rental slumber party
22-09-05_The Mousetrap
22-09-05_Hussein Chalayan
22-09-05_IDENSITAT Calaf/ Manresa 05
22-09-05_Sesiones animadas
21-09-05_POWER PLANT gallery
21-09-05_WHY BERLIN! No. 4
21-09-05_Monika Weiss
20-09-05_Dora García / Frac Bourgogne
20-09-05_JONAS DAHLBERG – JÁN MANCUSKA
20-09-05_S.M.A.K. is recruiting a Guest Curator
20-09-05_IN CONCERT
20-09-05_OPEN SEASON
08-06-05_Ana Laura Alaez » The Black Angels Death Song
15-01-06_Robert Gober 2 » La falsa fruta verdadera o sin título

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