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En estos tiempos de hipercomunicación bastaría la invitación de enviar a un amigo cualquiera de los textos que consideres interesantes algo redundante: demasiada comunicación, demasiados textos y , en general, demasiado de todo.
Es posible que estemos de acuerdo... pero cuando encuentras algo interesante en cualquier sitio, la red, la calle, tu casa, o un lugar escondido y remoto, compartirlo no sólo es un acto (acción, hecho) de amistad o altruismo, también es una manera de ahorrar tiempo a los demás (y de que te lo ahorren a ti (si eres afortunado) a costa del tiempo que tu has podido derrochar (emplear) y el gustazo de mostrar que estuviste ahí (o donde fuera ) un poco antes (el tiempo ya no es más el que era).
Comparte con tus conocidos aquello que encuentras, es evolución.
Qué sabía Descartes, de verdad? Dos biografías del filósofo
13-07-07 una sugerencia de: Javier Gomar 

 

Cogito, ergo sum, "pienso, luego soy" de René Descartes ha sido siempre un poco críptico. "Soy qué?" sigue siendo una buena pregunta. Dos libros sobre el filósofo francés nos acercan a una posible respuesta.


En "The Chain", una pizpireta comedia británica de 1984 sobre una mudanza de casa, el patrón de un equipo de transportes está asistiendo a clases por la tarde de filosofía, lo que le lleva a emitir juicios metafísicos mientras acarrea mobiliario de todo tipo.. De camino al primer trabajo de la jornada, este hombre recita a sus compañeros de trabajo lo que ha aptrendido en clase:
 
- Lo que Descartes dice es "pienso, luego soy."
- "Soy" qué?, alguien pregunta
- "Soy" y ya está.
- No puede ser "soy" y ya está, le responde. Tiene que ser "soy" algo!
 
De hecho, lo que Descartes escribio en su "Discours de la Méthode", de 1637, "Je pense, donc je suis" (la version latina "cogito, ergo sum" vino despues), siempre ha sido una propuesta ciertamemente críptica. Eso fue lo que precisamente le ayudó a ser el slogan mas famoso (y mas malinterpretado) en la historia de la Filosofía. Por ello, "Soy Qué?" sigue siendo una buena pregunta acerca de Descartes como persona., y es objeto de estudio por las dos nuevas biografías ("Descartes: A Biography" y "Descartes: The Life and Times of a Genius") publicadas recientemente en EE. UU. Reproducimos a continuación la crítica de ambas por parte de Anthony Gottlieb, publicada en el New Yorker.
 

In "The Chain," a chirpy British film comedy from 1984 about moving house, the foreman of a team of movers is taking evening classes in philosophy, and is prone to metaphysical musings while lugging heavy pieces of furniture. On the way to his first job of the day, he recites what he has learned to his workmates: "What Descartes is saying is 'I think, therefore I am.' ''

"Am what?" someone asks.

"Just am."

"Can't just be am. You gotta be am something."

In fact, what Descartes wrote in his "Discours de la Méthode," of 1637, "Je pense, donc je suis" (the Latin rendering, "Cogito, ergo sum," came later), was always a slightly cryptic formulation. That's what helped make it the most famous—and probably the most misunderstood—slogan in philosophy. And "Am what?" remains a good question to ask of Descartes the man, as two new biographies show. His personality remains an enigma. Vituperative, devious, insincere, proud, and unpredictable in his correspondence, he published works that ooze sweet reason and cool logic. Why did this Frenchman choose to spend most of his adult life away from his native country? Why did he repeatedly tell friends that he craved calm and quiet, then constantly pull up stakes and rush elsewhere? (A team of movers would have come in useful.) He did not, in adulthood, enjoy reading the books of others. So what, exactly, was going on in his head during his long mornings of inactivity?

It isn't easy to see Descartes's work the way he saw it—the relationship between science and philosophy has changed too much for that. Despite his current reputation, the man himself seems to have been less interested in metaphysics than in applying algebra to geometry and delving into the innards of cows. He turned to philosophy relatively late in life, and out of fear that the Catholic Church would condemn his science. He would have been surprised at how he is remembered.

Most of all, he would have been aghast at the way in which "I think, therefore I am" has been ripped from its context, inflated into a one-sentence summary of his ideas, and turned into something absurd. The rot set in at the start of the nineteenth century, when Hegel made heavy weather of "I think, therefore I am" and took it to mean that thought and being are fundamentally the same thing. Thus began the myth that modern philosophy is subjective at its roots—a view that was expounded by the late Pope John Paul II, who went so far as to suggest that the origins of Nazism and Communism are somehow linked to Descartes.


The origins of Descartes's slogan are straightforward enough, and it is not easy to see Hitler or Marx prefigured in them. In his "Discourse on Method," which is presented as an intellectual autobiography, Descartes recounts how he aimed to rebuild human knowledge on the firmest foundation. As a first step, to purge himself of error, he tried to cast doubt on as much as possible of what he thought he knew. So he pretended for the sake of argument, as he later put it in his "Meditations on First Philosophy" (1641), that "some malicious demon of the utmost power and cunning has employed all his energies in order to deceive me." Since he could not, at this stage of his inquiries, rule out the existence of such a demon, Descartes reasoned that it was possible to doubt all the evidence of his senses. What he thought he saw, heard, and felt might be a dream somehow procured by the evil deceiver. But then, he says, he realized that there was at least one thing that he could not be wrong about; namely, the proposition that he himself existed. The very act of doubting, of wondering where he might have gone astray, showed that he did exist.

Since the early nineteenth century, Descartes has routinely been called the father of modern philosophy. His attempt at a fresh start for human knowledge, relying on his own reason and casting aside received wisdom, came to typify the Enlightenment project. While his "Discourse" and "Meditations," with their focus on the nature of certainty, the existence of God, and the relation between mind and body, continue to be read by philosophy students, the bulk of his writings, which were on scientific subjects, has been forgotten. In his own day, his physics, cosmology, geometry, and physiology were given at least as much attention. When Molière poked fun at the pretensions of grand Paris ladies, his main target was the fashion for Descartes's astronomy: "I adore his vortexes," Armande coos in "The Learned Ladies," which was first produced in Paris in 1672. "And I his falling worlds," Philamente sighs.

Descartes was one of the precursors of the scientific revolution. Modern applied mathematics is largely based on an invention of his, analytic geometry, which uses algebra to solve practical problems about space and motion. He labored to construct a unified account of nature which would be as all-encompassing as the scholastic system derived from Aristotle but based on the un-Aristotelian "mechanical" principle that physical phenomena are to be explained in terms of contact between moving bodies and the motions and shapes of their parts. In physics and cosmology, Descartes propounded theories that were direct antecedents of Newton's "Principia."

Most of Descartes's scientific work, except for some of his mathematics, has been superseded, which is partly why he is now regarded as a purely abstract thinker. Much of his life, though, was spent in experiments, observations, calculations, and dissections. His explanation of the rainbow, for instance, was a landmark in optics, and almost right. He discovered the law of refraction, which explains why a straight stick can appear bent when partly immersed in water (though this discovery had been made earlier and independently). And Descartes was one of the first to demonstrate in detail that the workings of human bodies could be studied as if they were machines.

In "Descartes: A Biography" (Cambridge; $40), Desmond Clarke, a leading Descartes scholar at the National University of Ireland, Cork, argues that Descartes's philosophy is distorted if it is not seen in the context of his wider scientific enterprise. Descartes certainly played down his own purely philosophical writings. In a letter to his friend Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia, in June, 1643, and again in a conversation with a theology student, Frans Burman, who interviewed him in April, 1648, Descartes warned against paying too much attention to his metaphysics. Read it once, he said, and move on. His "Discourse," with the famous slogan, was published merely as a preface to a collection of treatises on optics, meteorology, and geometry. Clarke reminds us that Descartes's philosophical works were intended to establish credentials for his system of nature, and to make it theologically acceptable. The "Meditations" originally bore the subtitle "in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the immortality of the soul." Indeed, Clarke's most distinctive claim is that Descartes's account of the mind as an immaterial substance—his famous "dualism" of the mental and the physical, sometimes known as the doctrine of "the ghost in the machine"—is at best a provisional theory, aimed at providing support for the Catholic doctrine of the immortality of the soul, and sits uneasily with many other things that he wrote.

Descartes's dualism is certainly not quite what it is often taken to be. In the 1994 best-seller "Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain," the neurologist Antonio Damasio reports that Descartes believed in an "abyssal separation between body and mind . . . the separation of the most refined operations of mind from the structure and operation of a biological organism." This is actually the opposite of what Descartes believed. He held that we "experience within ourselves certain . . . things which must not be referred either to the mind alone or to the body alone," and that these arise "from the close and intimate union of our mind with the body." In his best-known writings, Descartes stressed the differences between matter (which occupies space) and thought (which does not). But he also maintained that, in human beings, mind and body are mysteriously and inextricably combined, as he tried to spell out in letters to Princess Elizabeth. (She kept pressing him on the point.) He could not explain how it is that mind and body are united, but he was sure that they were.

Another new biography, "Descartes: The Life and Times of a Genius" (Walker; $26.95), by A. C. Grayling, a prolific British philosopher and newspaper columnist, offers no revisionist interpretation of Descartes's thought but, instead, a highly readable tale with a startling suggestion about his life. Descartes, Grayling reckons, may have been a spy. It's a tempting thought that Descartes was no more the father of modern philosophy than James Bond was a salesman for Universal Exports—that all his geometry and metaphysics was merely a cover for some clandestine derring-do—but Grayling doesn't go quite so far. The possibility he raises is that Descartes did a little intelligence-gathering in the first decade of the Thirty Years' War, as an agent of pro-Hapsburg Jesuits, and that he reported back to the Jesuits about occultist sympathizers. This, Grayling thinks, would help to explain some of his travels and how he paid his way. There is, alas, not a scrap of hard evidence for this theory—Descartes was either no spy or else one of the most successfully secretive there has ever been. This is probably why no historian has mooted it before, and why none is likely to think it worth refuting now.

But is Grayling's spy theory any more fanciful than the late Pope's account? In "Crossing the Threshold of Hope" (1994), John Paul II says that, for Descartes, "only that which corresponds to human thought makes sense. The objective truth of this thought is not as important as the fact that something exists in human consciousness." Later, in "Memory and Identity," published in 2005, John Paul II argues further that the philosophical revolution brought about by Descartes downgraded God and put the mind of man in his place: "according to the logic of cogito, ergo sum, God was reduced to an element within human consciousness." In other words, Descartes inaugurated a shift to a view of the world in which the "I" is the foundation of everything, and a selfish monstrosity rules.

Given that Descartes did not mince his words when attacking his critics—the writings of one French mathematician were "impertinent, ridiculous and despicable"; the rector of the University of Utrecht was "stupid," "malicious," and "incompetent"; the work of Pierre Fermat, the greatest mathematician of his time, was "shit"—one wonders what he would have said about John Paul II. For Descartes repeatedly makes it clear that his own existence (and, indeed, that of the whole world) depends on God, not the other way around. Those who suspect Descartes of rampant subjectivism have confused the style of his reasoning with its substance. Descartes cast his philosophical inquiries in an autobiographical style. He looked within himself. But there was nothing subjective about what he found:

When I consider the fact that I have doubts, or that I am a thing that is incomplete and dependent, then there arises in me a clear and distinct idea of a being who is independent and complete, that is, an idea of God. And from the mere fact that there is such an idea within me, or that I who possess this idea exist, I clearly infer that God also exists, and that every single moment of my entire existence depends on him. . . . And now, from this contemplation of the true God, in whom all the treasures of wisdom and the sciences lie hidden, I think I can see a way forward to the knowledge of other things.

It's true that the informal, meandering style that makes his philosophical works engaging to read can also make their structure elusive. He writes that the certainty of his own existence is the "first principle" of his philosophy. But this just turns out to mean that it is the first certainty that he decided to accept, not that anything else is based upon it. Actually, Descartes infers nothing from his own existence. Instead, he asks how he comes to possess this one certainty, so that he can then find other certainties in the same way. The secret of that certainty is just that it involved "a clear and distinct perception of what I am asserting." Crucially, Descartes then introduces God. He offers several arguments for the existence of God, and, having satisfied himself that there must be a God, he reasons that this God, being good, would not allow His creatures to be seriously deceived, provided that they exercise some restraint and confine their beliefs to what they "clearly and distinctly" perceive to be true. Thus Descartes's system of knowledge depends not on his own existence but on God's.


René Descartes was born into the upper bourgeoisie on March 31, 1596, in a village then called La Haye, in the Loire Valley. Always a secretive man—his motto was Bene vixit, bene qui latuit ("He lives well who is well hidden")—he would not allow his date of birth to be published in his lifetime, for fear that someone might cast his horoscope. His father had hoped that he would follow him into legal practice and provincial officialdom, and marry well. In the event, René disappointed his father's dynastic ambitions, though his older brother, Pierre, delivered the goods, and the family acquired the lowest degree of nobility in 1668. René inherited some farms from his mother's family, and then sold them to help pay for his life as a gentleman scholar. His father said that he was the only son to have disappointed him, because he was "ridiculous enough to have himself bound in calfskin."

Descartes's mother died when he was fourteen months old, and his father entrusted his upbringing to relatives. At the age of ten, René was sent to the recently established Jesuit College of La Flèche. His health was weak, and a kinsman, Father Charlet, who was the rector of the school, managed to secure him special treatment. He had his own room and was allowed to laze in bed in the mornings, which became a lifelong habit. The other boys had to rise at 5 A.M.; Descartes apparently did not rouse himself until Mass at ten.

In 1614, he left the Jesuits to study law at Poitiers, graduating and rejoining his family two years later. How he then occupied himself is a mystery, but in 1618 he began his travels, aiming, as he later said, to "roam about in the world, trying to be a spectator rather than an actor in all the comedies that are played out there." He decided to enroll as a gentleman (i.e., unpaid) soldier in the army of Prince Maurice of Nassau, outside Breda, on the truce lines between the north and the south of the Netherlands. Descartes was rather bored, contenting himself with some painting, military architecture, and learning Flemish. It was thanks to an apparently chance meeting in the street in Breda that his intellectual career began to take shape.

On November 10, 1618, Descartes was reading a mathematical puzzle posted in Flemish on a billboard, and asked a passerby, Isaac Beeckman, to translate it into Latin. Seven years older than Descartes, Beeckman had just completed his medical degree while earning his living as an engineer and candlemaker. He was interested in applying mathematics to mechanics, explaining regularities in physical phenomena in terms of the behavior of their minute constituents—an approach to science which began to flourish in Holland in the late sixteenth century. The two men struck up a close friendship, and Descartes became, in effect, Beeckman's apprentice, using his mathematical skills (which were by all accounts superior to Beeckman's) to solve problems set by his master. It is unclear whether or not Beeckman was one of the catalysts for the revelation that Descartes claims to have had at the age of twenty-three, a year to the day after his first meeting with him. That was when he went to bed after a day's excited contemplation in which he discovered the "foundations of a marvellous science," and had a series of vivid dreams that changed his life. Possibly, it was a nervous breakdown rather than the intellectual breakthrough that Descartes later made it out to be. Either way, within a few years he seems to have been set on a life of learning, focussing on the natural sciences and mathematics.

The night of dreams took place in Neuburg, as Descartes was journeying to rejoin the army of Maximilian of Bavaria, with whom he had enlisted after leaving Prince Maurice's ranks. In the next decade, he travelled in Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Italy; did some of his most important work in geometry and optics; and started writing a treatise on the scientific method, which he never finished. In late 1628, he moved to the United Provinces (the northern, and Protestant, part of the Netherlands) and spent all but six months of the rest of his life there, living at twenty-four or more addresses in twenty years. Nobody has managed to shed much light on why he was so restless. (Grayling thinks that his spying days were over by then.) But it is lucky that he was, since he otherwise might not have written so many letters. What emerges from his correspondence is that Descartes was difficult, wildly ambitious, and hungry for fame. He rarely seems to have been a soul at peace.

At about the time of his move to the United Provinces, Descartes began work on "Le Monde," a pair of treatises giving a mechanistic approach to physics, cosmology, and physiology. While in Amsterdam, around 1630, he visited butchers' shops every day to get carcasses for dissection. (Grayling mistakenly credits Descartes with the first known observation of a conditioned reflex, in 1630. In fact, Descartes made no observation and was just guessing: "I reckon that if you whipped a dog five or six times to the sound of a violin, it would begin to howl and run away as soon as it heard that music again." Contrary to Grayling's claim, there is no reason to think that he ever actually whipped a dog, though he may on another occasion have dissected a live one.)

In 1633, Descartes's original scientific work pretty much came to an end, when, in July, Galileo was condemned by the Inquisition in Rome, and his recently published "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" was burned. Descartes immediately decided to lay aside "Le Monde." Although little harm could have come to him in the United Provinces (or, probably, in France, where there was no Inquisition, and considerable sympathy for Galileo), Descartes wanted to avoid arguments with theologians.

The main objection to Galileo's work was ostensibly its heliocentrism. The Church still maintained that the sun went around the earth, not vice versa. After all, the Psalms say that the earth cannot be moved; Genesis says that the earth was created before the sun; and Joshua told the sun and the moon to stand still while the children of Israel attacked the Amorites, which (it was argued) he would not have done if the sun was already still. Descartes knew that the earth did move. He wrote in November to his old friend Marin Mersenne that if this view were false then so, too, were the whole foundations of his system.

It was at this point that Descartes turned to the metaphysics and philosophizing about knowledge for which he is now remembered. He also turned to sex, some speculate for the first time. His daughter, Francine, was born in 1635 to Helena Jans, a maid in a house in Amsterdam where Descartes stayed. Francine died of scarlet fever five years later. She seems to have spent some time with Descartes, who pretended that she was his niece. A bizarre myth began to circulate in the eighteenth century that Descartes was accompanied on his later travels by a life-size mechanical doll that he called Francine. This seems to have been a gibe at the mechanistic view of nature which his philosophical works sought to underpin.

In the course of his "Meditations," he argued that the properties of physical objects that he could "clearly and distinctly" understand were measurable dimensions in space, geometric shape, duration, and motion, but that, "as for all the rest, including light and colours, sounds, smells, tastes, heat and cold and the other tactile qualities, I think of these only in a very confused and obscure way." In other words, he was claiming that the only physical facts of which knowledge can be guaranteed by recourse to God, who would not deceive us about things that we can "clearly and distinctly" grasp, are precisely the elements of his mechanistic system of nature. Descartes thereby provided, or so he thought, a justification that would appeal to the Church for his view that all natural phenomena can be explained by the principles of geometry and pure mathematics. He could not find any support for those views in the Psalms, Genesis, or Joshua, but he could at least bring God into the picture.

It did him no good. Descartes not only failed to win over the theologians of his day but forever weakened his philosophy in trying to do so. The flimsiest parts of his "Discourse" and "Meditations," as generations of undergraduates learn, are his proofs of the existence of God, and his argument that God would not deceive us. (Mersenne noted that God sometimes misled people in the Bible, so divine deception wasn't easily ruled out.) Several of Descartes's works were placed on the Index of forbidden books by the Catholic Church in 1663. The Church worried that his account of matter might be inconsistent with the Eucharist, and that he did not make the mind sufficiently independent of the body.

In France, men of letters and society ladies warmed to Descartes long before universities did. But in 1720 he achieved part of his ambition, when some of his books were put in the curriculum of the University of Paris. They did not, however, supplant Aristotle, as Descartes had always wanted, but were set for study alongside him.

Descartes died, of pneumonia, in Stockholm in 1650, at the age of fifty-three, having unwisely procured an invitation from Queen Christina of Sweden, and then even more unwisely accepted it. In the coldest Swedish winter in sixty years, he found himself obliged to stand bare-headed at five in the morning in Christina's library to give her philosophy lessons. It was a cruel change for a man who was not exactly a morning person. Four years later, the Queen abdicated and converted to Catholicism, prompted, she wrote, by Descartes's teachings.

He was buried in Sweden under a simple wooden monument that was allowed to rot. Seventeen years later, his remains were exhumed and taken on a six-month journey to France, except for his right forefinger, which the French Ambassador to Sweden was allowed to keep, and his head, which was removed by a captain in the Swedish guards. In France, his body was exhumed and reburied three more times before coming to rest in a former Benedictine monastery in Saint-Germain-des-Près. The Musée de l'Homme, in the Palais de Chaillot, near the Eiffel Tower, claims to have Descartes's skull, but the claim is weak. It seems that the great dualist's head is still missing.




   
 

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22-03-08_ Llámalo NOCILLA
13-03-08_ Sombras y fantasmas aterradores, irónicos y malévolos
24-03-08_ Ecology: a New Opium for the Masses
02-04-08_ Encarnar la crítica
31-03-08_ Todo es y se ha hecho posible
02-03-08_ Dos días en Viena
16-03-08_ mirad, mirad, malditos (en souhaitant beaucoup de papillons)
19-02-08_ Download Steal This Book Today Alpha… Today!
24-03-08_ CERRADURA y LLAVE
24-03-08_ J. G. Ballard, de Shanghai al neo-barbarismo
24-03-08_ La educación del des-artista
24-03-08_ El descrédito de lo visible
24-03-08_ La inconsistencia de los modelos propietarios
24-03-08_ Censorship today
31-12-07_ ¿Estamos preparados para KINDLE?
25-12-07_ Arthur C. Clarke o la razón soñadora
16-12-07_ Alrededor del sueño africano
09-12-07_ 10 types of publication
11-12-07_ Chuck Palhniuk * Entrevista
31-10-07_ EBOOK: Overclocked by Cory Doctorow
02-11-07_ Amsterdam MON AMOUR !
14-10-07_ Y después del Pop
02-11-07_ Trouble with the Real: Lacan as a viewer of Alien*
25-09-07_ La paradoja del escritor sin cara
10-10-07_ La era postmedia
25-09-07_UBU. Selección Otoño 2007
19-09-07_ Cultura_RAM
15-06-08_ Corporeidad Kafkiana
26-08-07_ SPOOK COUNTRY, el manifiesto del pasado reciente
26-06-08_ El teatro de la resistencia electrónica
05-01-08_ McLuhan's Wake
31-07-07_ Alberto Vázquez-Figueroa: "Primero que lean gratis, luego ya comprarán"
23-07-07_ Writing's Crisis v.1.0
23-07-07_ J.G. Ballard - Shanghai Jim
23-06-07_ This one shooting skyward
13-06-07_ Noctem Aeternus
06-06-07_ J.G. Ballard: Shanghai Jim
26-06-07_ Un paraiso extraño
10-05-07_ Persuasión * Jane Austen
10-05-07_ Orgullo y Prejuicio * Jane Austen
23-05-07_ Everything is weird, Epifanio said.
06-05-07_ Hatred of Capitalism: A Semiotext(e) Reader
25-04-07_ El buen soldado * Ford Madox Ford
09-04-07_ Germán y Dorotea *  Goethe
09-04-07_ Esperando a Orlando
05-04-07_ Llamadas telefónicas * Roberto Bolaño
30-03-07_ Hatred of Capitalism: A Semiotext(e) Reader
28-03-07_ Los inconsolables de la catorce
27-03-07_ Los papeles de Aspern * Henry James
29-03-07_ Ortodoxia * G. K. Chesterton
24-03-07_ Kawabata * Lo bello y lo triste
20-03-07_ Jane Austen * Persuasión
10-03-07_ M. Eliade * Visiones de Oriente
30-05-07_ Gate of Heaven
31-05-07_ Noam Chomsky and the Media
06-03-07_ The atrocity exhibition * GJ Ballard covert art
06-03-07_ Secrecy and responsibility * Questions for Derrida and Dostoevsky
04-03-07_ Negro como el carbón
23-02-07_ Jacques Derrida * Leer lo Ilegible
07-03-07_  The End Again 
18-02-07_ Entrevista * Peter Sloterdijk 
19-02-07_ El manifiesto Neoyorkino y las gentes que lo abrazaron
11-02-07_ Siegfried Kracauer * Estética sin Territorio
04-02-07_ UbuWeb Featured Resources February 2007 Selected by Charles Bernstein
31-01-07_ The Waste Land by T.S. Eliot
03-05-07_ La historia del buen viejo y la bella muchacha
03-05-07_ La mujer zurda * Peter Handke
23-12-06_ El ayudante * Robert Walser
22-12-06_ Hypertext 3.0: Critical Theory and NewMedia in an Era of Globalization
20-12-06_ La mejor serie de TV
19-12-06_ Andre Gide * Los sotanos del Vaticano
18-12-06_ Robert Penn Warren * Todos los hombres del Rey
13-12-06_ E.M. Forster * Regreso a Howard's End
12-12-06_ Thomas Bernhard * El sotano
10-12-06_ Atrapada en el Limbo
28-12-06_ Impostor
15-12-06_ La herencia de Dorothy Parker
05-12-06_ Books... that's all
02-12-06_  E-BOOK: Top Ten Titles at Project Gutenberg
28-11-06_ El imitador de voces * Thomas Bernhard
07-12-06_ Notas sobre Imitación y Contagio en la Novela (a partir de Bakhtin)
10-12-06_ Del Limbo * Giorgio Agamben
21-11-06_ Pincha Pynchon?
13-07-07_ Qué sabía Descartes, de verdad? Dos biografías del filósofo
10-11-06_El Crimen Invisible * Catherine Crowe
06-11-06_ Un visionario entre charlatanes
01-11-06_ E-BOOK: Books to Read Before You Die, Part 3
29-10-06_electronic literature collection - vol. 1
26-10-06_ E-BOOK: Books to Read Before You Die, Part 2
22-10-06_ E-BOOK: Books to Read Before You Die, Part 1
09-10-06_Paz y surf
08-10-06_Zonas Autónomas Permanentes
20-09-06_Goethe * Las afinidades electivas
18-09-06_ AUDIO BOOK * Longer Poems from Librivox
14-09-06_Félix Duque * ¿Hacia la paz perpetua o hacia el terrorismo perpetuo?
02-09-06_Only Revolutions, Danielewski on the road
01-09-06_International Man of Mystery
31-08-06_Rudiger Safranski * El mal
07-09-06_Andre Dubus y los cánones
03-05-08_ Ernst Jünger * Tiempo mensurable y tiempo del destino
14-01-08_ Ernst Jünger * La Emboscadura
30-08-06_Sloterdijk en la era de la levitación
28-08-06_Escribid, malditos, escribid
20-08-06_AUDIO BOOK: Genesis (in Hebrew)
15-08-06_Thomas Bernhard... y yo (BobPop)
15-08-06_El Gran Hermano «BEAT»
13-08-06_E-BOOK: Five of Shakespeare's best
11-08-06_Cory Doctorow * Down and out in the magic kingdom
11-08-06_Stranger than science fiction
10-08-06_AUDIO BOOK: Metamorphosis by Kafka
07-08-06_Dave Eggers... y yo (BopPop)
06-08-06_Enséñame a filmar
01-08-06_Pensar el presente
30-07-06_El cuarto purgatorio * Carlo Frabetti
30-07-06_El hijo de Gutemberg * Borja Delclaux
27-07-06_On the Road' again -- this time unedited
25-07-06_Thomas Pynchon — A Journey into the mind of [P.]
26-07-06_Strange sexual practices take place
22-07-06_Talk Talk * T.C. Boyle
22-07-06_“Cuentos completos - I” de Philip K. Dick
01-08-06_The Second Coming of Philip K. Dick
25-07-06_¿Le sirvo un poco más de té, señor Nabokov?
04-07-06_Man In Black
01-07-06_Las preguntas de Heidegger
29-06-06_Más de 300.000 obras gratis
26-06-06_Charles-Louis Philippe * Bubu de Montparnasse
18-06-06_Juan Carlos Castillón * Las políticas del secreto
18-06-06_Vernon Lee * La voz maligna
12-06-06_Bloomsday 06
12-06-06_Animales todos
17-06-06_Hagakure
07-06-06_De Sun Tzu a la Xbox: juegos de guerra
03-06-06_James Mangan * Una aventura extraordinaria en las sombras
12-06-06_Harold Bloom * Jesús y Yahvé, los nombres divinos
01-06-06_Conferencia de Felipe Martínez Marzoa: El pensamiento de Heidegger
30-05-06_Stefan Zweig * La impaciencia del corazón
22-05-06_Joris-Karl Huysmans * Cornelis Bega
19-05-06_Metáforas que nos piensan
06-06-06_Synesthesia and Intersenses: Intermedia
06-06-06_The Gospel according to Philip K. Dick
14-05-06_El Dios de las pesadillas * Paula Fox
14-05-06_La pelirroja * Fialho de Almeida
07-05-06_Chuck Klosterman * Pégate un tiro para sobrevivir
07-06-06_Slavoj Zizek * Lacrimae rerum
04-05-06_Eugenio Trías * Prefacio a Goethe
04-05-06_Ray Bradbury * Calidoscopio
04-08-06_Un día perfecto para el pez plátano
04-05-06_Seymour Glass
04-05-06_Julio Camba * La ciudad automática
07-06-06_Dictator Style
04-05-06_Rudiger Safranski * Schiller, o la invención del idealismo alemán
28-04-06_Michel Houellebecq * H. P. Lovecraft. Contra el mundo, contra la vida
04-05-06_El corazón de las tinieblas * Síntesis selvática
22-04-06_G. Flaubert * Diccionario de los lugares comunes
21-04-06_¡¡MADRID LEE!! (y otras pildoras de su interes)
21-04-06_HOWL fifty years later
21-04-06_Cees Nooteboom * Perdido el paraíso
01-05-06_Las Tres Vanguardias
19-04-06_El libro de Jack. Una biografía oral de Jack Kerouac
23-04-06_Hegel - Chesterton: German Idealism and Christianity
10-04-06_FRENCH THEORY * Posteridades intelectuales
11-04-06_La literatura y el mal
09-04-06_Corman McCarthy
09-04-06_Gabriele d’Annunzio * De cómo la marquesa de Pietracamela donó sus bellas manos a la princesa de Scúrcula
09-04-06_Saved Kashua * Árabes danzantes
09-04-06_Jim Mccue * No Author Served Better
09-04-06_Gary Adelman * Naming Beckett’s Unnamable
09-04-06_Thomas Browne * Sobre errores vulgares
08-04-06_Encuentros con Beckett
09-04-06_Michiko Tsushima * The Space of Vacillation
08-04-06_Trotsky * Memoria de un revolucionario permanente
08-04-06_Rafael Doctor * Masticar los tallos...
03-04-06_Edie... Sedgwick
02-04-06_El corazón de las tinieblas * Joseph Conrad
01-04-06_Parientes pobres del diablo * Cristina Fernández Cubas
01-04-06_China S.A. * Ted Fishman
01-04-06_Subnormal * Sergi Puertas
21-04-06_Homúnculos y Demonios
30-03-06_Creación e Inteligencia Colectiva * El libro.
28-03-06_Young Adult Fiction
25-03-06_Nada es sagrado, todo se puede decir * Raoul Vaneigem
25-03-06_Tras la verdad literaria * Herman Melville
22-03-06_Lovercraft según Houllebecq
19-03-06_Cees Nooteboom | Perdido el paraíso
16-03-06_La idea de Europa | George Steiner
16-03-06_Contra el fanatismo | Amos Oz
16-03-06_La sociedad invisible | Daniel Innerarity
13-03-06_Ashbery. Autorretrato en espejo convexo
23-07-07_ Autor, autor
25-03-06_Pushkin, Mozart y Salieri
04-03-06_Across the Universe | 'Counting Heads'
13-03-07_El Hombre variable
19-03-06_Entrevista: Bret Easton Ellis / Lunar Park
26-02-06_Bloy, profeta en el desierto / Historias impertinentes
26-02-06_Tratado de ateología
13-02-06_Contra la escritura por encargo / Hipotermia
07-02-06_El mono científico
07-02-06_El Relojero
19-03-06_La obra maestra desconocida / Honoré de Balzac
29-01-06_Un caso de Identidad / Arthur conan Doyle
29-01-06_Una escritora entre Oriente y Occidente / Entrevista: Amélie Nothomb
29-01-06_Viaje al fondo de la habitación / Tibor Fischer
23-01-06_Puntualmente / Günter Grass
18-01-06_Two Million Feet of Vinyl
16-01-06_No tan libres como parece
09-01-06_The Coming Meltdown
07-01-06_Palabra
07-01-06_Nada volvió a ser lo mismo
06-01-06_A Debut Novel Serves Up an Irish Stew in London
27-12-05_Jazz and Death: Medical Profiles of Jazz Greats
06-01-06_John Berger: /«Una vida sin deseos no merece la pena»
03-12-05_La gran obra de Murasaki Shikibu
03-10-05_« Tríptic hebreu » / (fragmento)
10-06-05_Anthony Bourdain » Confesiones de un chef
10-06-05_Samuel Beckett » Deseos del hombre y Carta Alemana
06-06-05_Ali Smith » Supersonic 70s

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