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En estos tiempos de hipercomunicación bastaría la invitación de enviar a un amigo cualquiera de los textos que consideres interesantes algo redundante: demasiada comunicación, demasiados textos y , en general, demasiado de todo.
Es posible que estemos de acuerdo... pero cuando encuentras algo interesante en cualquier sitio, la red, la calle, tu casa, o un lugar escondido y remoto, compartirlo no sólo es un acto (acción, hecho) de amistad o altruismo, también es una manera de ahorrar tiempo a los demás (y de que te lo ahorren a ti (si eres afortunado) a costa del tiempo que tu has podido derrochar (emplear) y el gustazo de mostrar que estuviste ahí (o donde fuera ) un poco antes (el tiempo ya no es más el que era).
Comparte con tus conocidos aquello que encuentras, es evolución.
The samba and the sauna
06-06-06 Suggested by: Terry & The Pirates 

 
By Andrew Leonard
In our incessant search for the unforeseen interconnection, today How the World Works brings you the the story of Brazil and Finland, two countries whose names one rarely sees paired together. And why should they be? Could the two nations be more different? Finland is the home of the archetypical dour Northern European. Brazil, the land of tropical passion. Hot vs. cold; samba vs. sauna; Carnaval vs. reindeer.

But there's a link between Helsinki and Sao Paulo. Both nations thrive in the digital domain. Finns and Brazilians alike flourish in the interstices of the Internet. Both see great value in the hacker ethic, the sharing of information.

This is not merely about the prevalence of Brazilians on social networks like Orkut, or Finnish expertise at cryptography. Nor is it the odd historical fact that Finland is the birthplace of the free software operating system Linux and Brazil's government is one of free software's biggest international supporters. It goes deeper: One can make an argument that both countries are at home in the realm of digital culture for unique historical and cultural reasons. The reasons are different -- grounded in utterly dissimilar material circumstances -- but the results are fascinating, predisposing two nations that could not be less alike to swim like one school of fish in the information technology seas.

Finland, the home of Nokia and Linus Torvalds, has received quite a bit of attention for its info-tech prowess. When I visited Helsinki six years ago, doing research for a chapter on Finland in my book on free software, one I.T. entrepreneur explained his theory as to why this was so by reaching deep into Finland's prehistory.

(Here I quote from my previously published work): The key to surviving Finland's long, dark winters was the efficient optimization of information, or "survival lore." How many cows do you intend to keep alive through the long dark months? At what point do you kill the cows you won't keep alive in order to maximize your remaining food stocks? How will you then keep the meat from spoiling? How much time do you devote to chopping wood? What are the most energy efficient techniques for insulation and cooking?

The interesting thing is that survival lore doesn't automatically lend itself to a proprietary model of information acquisition. In other words survival lore does not diminish in value if other people acquire it. You might want to keep a better design for a longbow or sword to yourself or your clan, hoping to gain an arms-race advantage over your competitors. But you gain relatively little by keeping to yourself a better food preparation technique or algorithm for calculating the proper ratio of wood chopping to hay gathering to livestock slaughtering. Quite the contrary: If you share your winter survival optimization techniques with others, they may well be more likely to share their information with you.

So, voilà, it's no surprise that Linus Torvalds came up with Linux, or that Finns embraced the free software ethos of Richard Stallman. Sharing information is built into the deep structure of Finnish civilization, a product of the struggle to survive the endless cold. Or so the theory goes!

But what about Brazil? Brazil has no brutal winters to explain why it is one of the developing world's leading critics of ever more restrictive global intellectual property laws. There is no similar tradition of "survival lore." I started wondering about Brazil again today when I read a report that the growing cost of Brazil's pledge to provide AIDS drugs free of charge to all its citizens was leading some government officials to renew threats to manufacture generic versions of Big Pharma drugs. What explains Brazil's bulldog approach?

A few idle hyperlink jumps later, and I was reading a brilliant speech given at New York University in September 2004 by Brazil's minister of culture, the famous "tropicalismo" musician Gilberto Gil. Gil was explaining why he was releasing a song that he owned the rights to under the Creative Commons license popularized by Stanford law professor Larry Lessig. The speech is a phenomenally articulate and poetic manifesto for the social value of copying and sampling and mixing cultural expression.

"I decided on 'Oslodum,'" said Gil, "whose lyrics celebrate and encourage the appropriation of Brazilian culture by all the world’s peoples, praising the beauty of an Afro-Brazilian Bahia street-carnival group that parades every year on the streets of Oslo, on Mardi Gras, even when it snows. If I have fed so much on the cultures of others and it has been so important for my art, why shouldn’t others also propose new uses for what we create in Brazil? I know that this ravenousness, what poet Oswald de Andrade so cheerily and violently termed cultural cannibalism, or anthropophagism, is not only a Brazilian characteristic, but something we share with all other Latin-American peoples, which includes our foundational enthusiasm for miscegenation, for what is hybrid, trans-cultural, Creole, mestizo, and so many other terms we minted to speak of this aptitude of ours for mixture."

The reference to the poet Andrade is key. In his satirical modernist essay "Cultural Cannibalism," published in the 1920s, Andrade made reference to the encounter of the Tupi Indians with an evangelizing bishop from across the Pacific. As Julian Dibbell explains in an excellent article in Wired magazine about Brazil, Gil and free software, the Tupi listened to the bishop's preaching with enthusiasm. And then they ate him.

"I am only interested in what is not mine," says the narrator of Andrade's poem. This is not to be seen as greedy, but as an invitation to merge, to explore what is different from oneself. Brazil, more than any other post-colonial country, joined together the bloodlines of the invader and the indigenous. According to Gil and many other commentators, this mestizo sensibility has manifested itself in Brazilian culture in a thousand ways; in a syncretist approach to music, in a passion for integrating many disparate things into one potent brew.

And nothing, says Gil, makes things easier to mix together than digital tools, the language of code, the endless morphability of software. Brazil, argues Gil, understands that the new information age is defined by its mutability, by the ease with which things can now be copied and shared. The old regime of the West is trying to resist this intrinsic aspect of new technology. Brazil chooses a different tack -- to embrace.

Gil's manifesto is not shy. He finished his speech with a blazing call to arms, declaring that an openness to sharing and mixing could lead the way to a profoundly different approach to development:

"A Latin-American continent concerned with the issues of development and diversity (in other words, concerned with the invention of other possible developments) can decisively contribute to this process by getting involved with the economic dimension of culture and with the cultural dimension of the global economy. We can turn our Continent into a factory of cultural creativity. The production of knowledge, of comprehensive knowledge, of complex knowledge, able to deal with the multiplicity, the fragmentation and the inconsistencies of reality, this is the basis on which to climb to a new threshold, to elaborate a plan for the world that incorporates both traditional planning and management through flow, the management of demands, of what is imponderable, of surprises, what the great samba writer Cartola would call 'the sudden turns life takes' or what Café Tacuba call El Ciclón, things that are often intangible, often impossible to plan, yet fundamental. For I am optimistic: no matter how hard fascisms try to make the World square, life comes along and rounds everything up once again. The world keeps going around, taking its turns, just as the circle of the Chinese yin and yang teaches us."







Publicado originalmente en www.salon.com

   
 

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_HistÓrico_Tecnología

10-05-15_Cassette tapes are the future of big data storage
22-10-12_ Linus Torvalds Compares Hard Disks to Satan
21-10-12_ Doing with Icons makes Symbols; or, Jailbreaking the Perfect User Interface
30-09-12_ Web 3.0/NanoWar. The Afterimage of the Surveillance State
01-01-11_ El espacio público en la época de la presencia virtual
01-06-10_ How to Keep the Internet Free from Censorship (a call for programmers)
03-05-10_ Dennis Hong: Mis siete especies de robots.
12-07-10_ Collaborative Futures
28-02-10_ CLOUD CULTURE: THE PROMISE AND THE THREAT
29-03-09_ Me llamo Rubén y estoy embarazado
06-09-08_ No hay libertad sin SOFTWARE LIBRE
21-06-08_ Chris Jordan * Picturing excess
27-05-08_ WEB movil * retos por venir
16-04-08_ ¿El colapso de Windows?
02-04-08_ Sobran las EULAS
03-04-08_ Interview with Alessandro Ludovico (Neural Magazine)
20-02-08_ El "hacker" más famoso vuelve a la carga
04-02-08_ En la sala de control
24-03-08_ TOR... el anonimato de la cebolla
22-09-08_ Lev Manovich * Understanding Meta-Media
02-12-07_ Let There Be Lights: Meet Lichtfaktor, the New Illuminati
02-12-07_ Una enciclopedia práctica (es cierto)
27-11-07_ A guide to success
15-11-07_ GOOGLE presenta ANDROID
13-09-07_ Unlock your iPhone... just... right now
02-09-07_ Código abierto, código indefenso
28-08-07_ Photospace
25-08-07_ Iphone liberado
03-08-07_ Manipulación de imágenes ;-)
16-07-07_ Omemo + que un disco duro virtual
08-07-07_ Interview * Christine Hill
29-06-07_ Cultura y el cuarto principio del software libre
07-06-07_ M I T  e-news  * June 2007
19-06-07_ Ajax para todos
01-06-07_ The Pirate Bay... ahora vídeo streaming
01-06-07_ Mobile Music Workshop
16-05-07_ Think . Make . Think
13-05-07_ Los cuatro mandamientos de los programas libres
02-07-07_ The author's algorithm
03-05-07_ 09 F9 11 02 9D 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88 C0
19-04-07_ Pirates of the Multiplex
15-04-07_UN Zoco para la creación
05-04-07_ Technology retrieves sounds in the wall
22-02-08_ David Cuartielles * Entrevista
22-02-08_ David Cuartielles [ARDUINO] * Entrevista
18-03-07_ La video instalación y el retorno a la obra única
08-03-07_ Piracy Documentary: On Piracy & the Future of Media
06-03-07_TAGallery | THE ART Gallery
03-03-07_ Magic weed * History of Marijuana
22-02-07_ Angelo Vermeulen * Interview
04-02-07_ Probar diseños en diferentes navegadores
02-02-07_ Linux is not Windows
29-01-07_ How to Find Fake Torrents Uploaded by the MPAA and RIAA
29-01-07_ Adam Greenfield * Interview
19-01-07_ Los niños prodigio de Pierre Jaquet-Droz
18-01-07_ PURE:DYNE aka XP->XtendedPanic Fucker
13-01-07_ How to do research
19-01-07_ Sealand Won't be Sold to Pirates
07-01-07_ Internet Explorer fue inseguro 284 días de 2006, Firefox sólo 9
02-01-07_ Douglas Rushkoff Interview
01-01-07_ 23C3: On Free, and the Differences between Culture and Code
26-12-06_ RoundedCornr: generador online de cajas con esquinas redondeadas
25-12-06_ Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion By Oliver Grau (E-Book)
17-12-06_ Apple copia a Postal Service?
15-12-06_ Bill Gates on the future of DRM
31-05-07_ Hypervirus: a clinical report
05-12-06_ BitTorrent Video Store to be Infected with Windows DRM
01-12-06_ Quick Embed Code to Add Comments To Any Site
17-11-06_ Zune Deconstructed... Can Run Linux
17-11-06_ Alexitimia * VIDA 9.0
16-11-06_ Bittorrent Movie Download Chart (wk45)
15-11-06_ Quad Core... en 5 años 80 nucleos faenando ¡!
03-11-06_Transmission 0.7 Beta. Redefining BitTorrent on the Mac
01-11-06_Interview with Ubermorgen
28-10-06_Debian: jugando se aprende
25-10-06_The best of BITTORRENT
22-10-06_La revolución digital
20-10-06_Los científicos demuestran que es posible hacer invisible un objeto
17-10-06_Interview With The Pirate King * Ashwin Navin Of BitTorrent
17-10-06_Reuters en Second life
08-10-06_La historia de Apple, según Steve Wozniak
08-10-06_La televisión no lo filma
27-09-06_Interview of John Klima
29-09-06_Entrevista * Toni Abad
19-09-06_Mapa del torrente de datos (BitTorrent) ;-)
18-09-06_John Updike * El final de la autoría
18-09-06_What News Corp doesn't want you to know about MySpace
12-09-06_Book: Design Noir
06-09-06_Ingeniería filosófica para la red
06-09-06_Notas sobre la Simplicidad
30-08-06_El futuro fue ayer
30-08-06_Interview * Adam Somlai-Fischer
20-08-06_Deleuze * Leibniz
15-08-06_Mission Eternity
23-07-07_ Free culture & the internet: a new semiotic democracy
10-08-06_Open Wi-Fi: The Best RIAA Defense?
04-08-06_Juguetes para el Verano
04-08-06_Art and design raise awareness about biotechnology
31-07-06_Arthur Clarke Cybercast Hal's Birthday [Reloaded >)
28-07-06_Media Link Dump * YouTube for 07-25-06
24-07-06_I make $1.45 a week and I love it
24-07-06_Pensar en paralelo
20-07-06_Interview of W. James Au AKA Hamlet Au
20-07-06_La Tierra en la luna de Saturno (recuerda la odisea... )
06-07-06_Rewired brain' revives patient after 19 years
30-06-06_The Wired 40
28-06-06_Con sólo diez llamadas puedes asaltar una empresa
21-06-06_Llega el nuevo Opera
17-06-06_¿Adiós a la regla?
16-06-06_What is Alky?
14-06-06_The power of Ten
12-06-06_Las nuevas tecnologías pueden levantar nuevas barreras
07-06-06_Pirate Bay Bloodied but Unbowed
01-06-06_Lo que Google sabe de mí
05-06-06_Music Phones Want to Be Free
23-05-06_DIY: construyendo un transmisor de Televisión
05-06-06_A Guide to the Online Video Explosion
05-06-06_Interview of Marc Boehlen
15-05-06_iAy caramba! MacBook is hot
11-05-06_¿Se rompe Internet?
06-06-06_The samba and the sauna
07-06-06_A Grand Unified Theory of YouTube and MySpace
07-06-06_Who Needs the DJ?
04-05-06_Hattori Hanzo
04-05-06_Su operación está siendo procesada
23-04-06_Nueve veces virgen
19-04-06_Origen y Sedimento
05-04-06_What Gaming can Learn from Installation Art
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24-03-06_Dream Machines
13-03-07_ Descargas ilegales
13-03-07_ Teléfono gratuito del 11888
23-03-06_Los trucos del 11888
16-03-06_Jazztel, Just tell!
15-03-06_Life, the Universe, and Everything
10-03-06_Why Data Mining Won't Stop Terror
02-03-06_The Problem With Music
27-02-06_Historia de un sueño
25-02-06_Mutant Algae Is Hydrogen Factory
18-02-06_Compartir es Yomango
19-02-06_Por primera vez una sentencia judicial española cita el 'copyleft'
11-02-06_Vida sintética en ARCO
07-02-06_Arte en la era digital
03-02-06_Nev Hyman’s Next Big Thing
03-02-06_Endesa y su PLC (Power Line Comunication)
29-01-06_The New Boom
29-01-06_Sharon, el arquitecto de las ruinas
23-01-06_The 50 Best Robots Ever
20-01-06_Universo de Blogs
17-01-06_DEAACS.COM
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13-01-06_El pan gracias al circo: la economía del juego en línea
11-01-06_Behind the magic curtain
06-01-06_`Decálogo de seguridad’ ante la compra de nuevos ordenadores
04-01-06_Pete Tong: Apple's Gone Wrong?
03-01-06_SonyBMG ofrece dinero y discos...
24-12-05_Un nuevo intento de avanzar hacia Internet
19-12-05_El Oculista
05-01-06_Óptica recreativa
23-11-05_Primer troyano que aprovecha el rootkit de Sony
13-11-05_Sony utiliza un rootkit que pone en riesgo la seguridad de sus clientes
11-11-05_Sony: polémico sistema contra la piratería
29-10-05_Arte digital / Arte contemporaneo
07-08-06_Primer.

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